A hard system is characterized by the following:
- Clearly defined goals and objectives: Hard systems have well-defined targets and objectives that are established and understood by all stakeholders involved.
- Predictable outcomes: The outcomes and results produced by hard systems are predictable and can be accurately modeled. These systems are based on proven scientific laws, mathematical formulas, or engineering solutions.
- Reliance on scientific laws: Hard systems are grounded in scientific laws and principles. They utilize established mathematical formulas or engineering solutions to achieve their goals.
An example of a hard system is a stock management system in a supermarket. In this system, it is possible to precisely determine the stock levels, cost, selling price, and predict the profit if all the stock is sold. The system operates based on mathematical calculations and proven strategies for inventory management.