European invasion and activities began long before 19th due to exploration. The Portuguese, wanted to gain geographical knowledge about the continent led by Portugal’s Kings and Princess like Henry the Navigator.

Trade: They wanted to have a share of Africa’s trade in gold, ivory and slaves so that they could derive revenue.

Religion; They wished to spread Christianity to the non- Christian inhabitants of Africa, and intended to find Prester John, the legendary Abyssinian Christian King of Africa. They hoped that he would help them against the Muslims of North Africa who had dominated the Liberian Peninsula for several centuries.

Technological and Scientific Developments

There was caravels build by Portuguese, Navigators had learnt how to use charts, which indicated harbours along the coastline, and they could note the direction of the winds and currents and used a sophisticated compass marked with 30 points to show direction.

Military Strength

They had advanced naval warfare, their guns and cannons were of superior quality this gave them an advantage over the people they came into contact with.

Spirit of Adventure

They were curious to see other lands and people, they came to Africa for the sheer joy of being the first to find and conquer new lands.

Competition to Dominate

This due to a fact that many countries were involved in Africa with varied activities.Therefore they had the opportunity to  Scramble and partition.


The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed on increase in European interest in Africa, by countries like Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Belgium and Portugal were in Africa competing for colonies. They partitioned Africa amongst themselves after convening the Berlin inference of 1884 – 1885.

The Berlin conference was convened by other von Bismarck, the German, and Chancellor, to avoid involving his country in quarrels with other states over African colonies.

During the scramble for and partition of the continent, the Europeans adopted carrot and stick methods to acquire as many colonies as possible for themselves. This involved persuading Africans to collaborate by offering them a rewards or a punishment if they did not cooperate.

This elicited different emotions from Africans, most communities resisted, while only a few collaborated. Despite their resistance, most African societies except Liberia and Ethiopia had been colonized by 1914.

Defining Scramble and partition.

Scramble means to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something. The scramble for Africa refers to the rush and struggle for different parts of Africa by Europeans powers.To partition is to divide something among people, or to apportion something among contenders or competitors. The partition of Africa refers to the dividing up or sharing of Africa by European nation


European powers agreed to validate their claims on any part of Africa by informing others.  The powers used different methods to acquire colonies in Africa, like individual European nationals with direct or indirect support form their mother countries made claims for their countries. Despite the occasional complaints, these claims were settled and specific countries recognized as being effective occupants of a declared sphere of influence.

Diplomacy they established diplomatic relations with African leaders like those of the tribal in Nigeria and eventually occupied their lands.

Treaty signing.There was two types of treaties, that is, treaties between Africans and Europeans on the one hand and those between the European powers themselves. Most of the treaties signed after 1885 were protection treaties between African rulers and representatives of European governments and private organizations. Once these treaties were accepted by the home government, the arms become a protectorate of that particular European power.

During the partition, some European states dashed in areas where they had common interest, in cases where spheres of influence were contested, the European countries involved settled their disputes through mutual agreements. Such agreements were called partition treaties like Anglo-German agreements of 1886 – 1890.

Luring Of Chiefs

They gave presents of cloth, beads, tools, weapons and even intoxicating drinks for example, the Baganda and Lozi. There chiefs were cheated through such gifts and ended up losing their independence.

Divide and Rule. They instigated war between different societies by playing off one society against another. After such societies had fought and were weakened, the Europeans stopped in and occupied their land like Baganda and Banyoro.

Military Conquests

Whenever treaty making failed they used military conquest. The French in particular favored this method West Africa and also the British used it in conquest of Asante.

Factors that had to be scramble for Africa

The main causes of the scramble for Africa were a combination of political economic and social factors.

Bismark and the rise of Germany

In 1870, France and provision fought in Europe in the Franco – Prussian war, and France was defeated. This resulted in the completion of the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfort. The French lost Alsace and Lorraine region an area rich in coal and iron.

         Otto van Bismark, the former chief Minister of Prussia became the German Chancellor. The rise of Germany altered the balance of power in Europe because she became the most powerful state in place of France. He encouraged France to seek for colonies in Africa as compensation and consultation for her losses in Europe and Africa, his activities, they partly caused his scramble.

Industrialization in Europe

Britain was the 1st European state to industrialize, followed by Belgium  and France. At 1st, markets for manufactured goods and sources of raw materials were readily available. But when other European countries became industrialized, there was a lot of competition and protectionism. European powers that relied on reports made by their explorer and travelers in Africa turned to Africa for markets for their manufactured goods and sources of raw materials.

European Rivalry

European merchants in Africa asked for perfections from their mother countries whenever they faced competition either from African merchants or those of other European, suspected mineral wealth also led to the scramble for colonies in Africa. The competition and rivalry of the European powers led to the scramble for colonies.

They Egyptian Question

Modern European involvement in Egypt bean with Nepolc’ans Egyptian campaign of 1798 which led to construction of such canal in 1859 – 1869. This canal was strategic importance to Britain because of her economic links with India.

From 1863 to 1879, Egypt was ruled by Khedive Ismail. He had great aims for the modernization of Egypt but had no money. It is reliance on foreign loans and his extravagance led to Egypt’s bankruptcy and the sale of her shark in the canal to the British. British and French intervened in Egypt’s finances to that she might be able to pay her debts. Khedive Ismail clashed with these commissioners and dismissed them. Consequently, the European powers put pressure on the Sultan of Turkey to overthrow Ismail, who was accordingly deposed in 1879, Ismail was succeeded by his son, Tawfiq who was just but a puppet of the Europeans.

The British and French dual control of Egypt caused a nationalist uprising in 1880. It was led by colonial Hammed Urabi Pasha. The British supposed this revolt and later defeated the Egyptians at the battle of Tel-el –Kabir and occupied the country in 1882. The Britain occupation of Egypt offended the French, who planned to occupy other territories in Africa.

The French Activities in West Africa and Congo

The French established a protectorate over Porto Novel in 1882 and made plans for the occupation of more territories in the region. These plans worried the British traders already stationed in West Africa. Even Germanys which had kept a lot changed her mind concerning the acquisition of territories in Africa; she joined the race for colonies and later occupied Togo, Cameroon, South – West Africa and Tanganyika.

Savergan de Brazza, an Italian adventurer in the service of Franco, obtained treaties from the Congolese King, Makoko, dated September/October 1880. In 1882, the French government accepted those treaties as valid documents. Thereafter French activities intensified the scramble for colonies in Africa.

The Rise of Nationalism and Racialism 

Each nation claimed superiority over others since the possession of colonies was regarded as proof of nation’s superiority. Europeans believed that a nation must spread overseas to provide its national vigor. Industrialization also gave rise to theories of white man’s racial superiority over the black man who was not yet industrialized.

The Missionary factor

The aim of missionary was to spread Christianity civilize the Africans, abolish slave trade and encourage legitimate trade whenever they were faced with problems with the local people, they asked for protection from their mother countries.

King Leopold II Activities in Congo

King Leopold II of Belgium formed the African International Association in 1876 for the purpose of curving out for himself a personal empire in the Congo region. In 1879, he employed Henry Morton Stanley and sent him out to explore the area. The result of Stanley’s journey was the creation of the Congo Free State, which was recognized by other European powers.

Portugal fault threatened by the activities conference to solve these territorial disputes in Africa was held. The conference was held in Berlin, the capital of the German empire under the presidency of the German chancellor, Otto Von Bismark, leading to partition of Africa.

The Process of Partition of Africa.

From 1870, antimissile European interest increased with demands and urges to have colonies. By 1884, the campaigns to set up colonial witnessed a period of intensive scramble for Africa which nearly resulted into war in Europe over claims in Africa. European process or their nationals encouraged the guest for occupation of Africa and the German chancellor Otto Von Bismark, in an effort to avert war in Europe over Africa, called the Berlin conference in November 1884.

European powers, led by Britain and France as they contestants over Africa agreed to attend the conference, by February by Effectively sharing and allocating specific regions among  claiming powers. This is the Berlin conference became the starting point of partitioning Africa. Rules and conditions were set by the conference on the occupation claims.

Terms of Berlin conference

Shepherd of influence. Any European power occupying any part of Africa had the obligation to inform others. The helped to avoid double conflicting claims. The first power to inform others was regarded as the rightful claimant.

Effective occupation

It was passed that any claim of any African territory had to be followed by effective occupation. A claim was regarded valid only if a European power    nationals or agents effectively settled or averted her authority in a region.

Protection of the White man

The process of partitioning Africa after the Berlin conference was boosted by the realistic protection principle stipulating that European powers or their nationals who established spheres of influence in Africa were under obligation to protect and safeguard the White man’s interest irrespective of their nationality.

  • There was to be freedom of navigation for trade on river Niger, Congo and Zambezi.
  • King Leopold of Belgium was recognized as the head of the New Congo independent state by all the powers.
  • The European powers agreed in the stoppage of slave trade and encouragement of legitimate trade.

The Impact of Partition of

a) Political Impact

  • European administration based on direct, indirect and assimilation approaches were established.
  • Loss of independence and state organization among African communities under European powers.
  • Africa was introduced to would geo-political system by the colonizing powers.
  • Modern African states boundaries were drawn during the partition.
  • African communities found themselves split into different states without consultation local African rulers lost their integrity to European colonizing powers.
  • Africa was given to chartered companies which administered the continent.
  • Intensification of tribal or ethnic difference as colonial powers played a one tribe against another.

Economic Impact

  • African colonies provided and supplied industrial raw materials and markets European industries.
  • African Labour was expected for European economic gains.
  • Labour was reunited in Africa through forced legislation and taxation.
  • Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas.
  • European invaders alienated African lands, creating room for European settlements as Africans were pushed to low productive reserves.
  • African economic activities were disrupted, especially among the nomadic pastorals. Their animals were taken and area of grazing limited.
  • Africans were introduced to international commerce through trade, financial institutions and the use of currency.
  • Wage labour was introduced in Africa.

Social Impact

permanent European settlement was established

many Africans lost their lives through resistance and European pacification wars.

  • The Intensification of the spread of Christianity
  • African cultural values were exposed to systematic erosion in the face of European settlement.
  • Western education was encouraged by Christian missionaries in Africa.
  • The establishment of Christian missionaries.
  • The establishment of Christian mission centers was accompanied by medical facilities.
  • The development of urban centers ensured roads and railways were built to link those areas.There emerged racial segregation in Africa as a result of European superiority complex.


This varied from the region to the other. The nature and character of reaction was influenced by a number of factors.

The response to European colonization was basically determined by the nature and methods of European entry and rule.

It was also determined by the social, economic and political state of the colonized society.

a) Resistance

This was the use of military force to try to prevent European colonization like Tanganyika by Maji Maji uprising (1906- 1907) against the Germans, West Africa the mandinka under Samori Toure resisted the French occupation (1882 – 1898), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) where the Ndebele under Lobengula.(1883 – 1896).

The Maji Maji Rebellion 1965 – 1907

The German colonialists had suppressed other revolts such as the Abushiris at the coast, the Hehe under Mkwawa, the Nyamwezi under Isike and the Chagga in the Kilimanjaro area.

By 1900, the Germans had conquered most of Tanganyika and established effective control over the people.

Communities come together and formed a revolt named maji maji because by the uprising, there arose a medicine man called Kinjekitele Ngwale who introduced and distributed some magic water (maji) to the people, claiming that it would make him immune to the German bullets. It was believed that the dead ancestors would protect the people.

The causes of the maji maji rebellion.

Oppressing of Africans: The German rule was hated because it was brutal and inhuman in its treatment of Africans like hut tax, forced labour.

The Forced cotton- growing program

The people were to plant cotton on communal plots and share the profits with the marketing organization under the Akidas and Jumbes.

Disrespect for the African Culture and custom. They didn’t  respect African culture and customs. They misbehaved with Ngindo woman.

Land Alienation: African land was forcefully taken away from them. They were pushed into infertile areas.

The Role of Religion; It boasted the people’s morale and gave them courage to fight against the Germans because of the promised immunity against German bullets by the medicinal water.

Employment of Arabs and Swahili: They employed Arabs and Swahili as Akidas (Chiefs) and Jumbes (headmen) to role over the Africans.

Desire for revenge by the Ngoni. The Ngoni wanted to revenge the 1989 massacre by the Germans in south  Africa.


The revolt broke out at the end of July, 1905 in Umatumbi. The rebels attacked German government officials and Arab shopkeepers and government officials and Arab shopkeepers and government stations and outposts.

The Pogoro of Kitope refused to pick cotton. Ngindo joined the rebels; the town of Samanga near Kihoa was located and burnt to the ground. The Ngoni joined the revolt in September 1905.

The Germans had not expected a revolt from this area so they lacked the means for immediate suppression. The governor, Graf Von Gotzon had to wait for reinforcement from Germany and other territories of German in Africa.

When at last they arrived, suppression was ruthlessly executed leaders who were caught were killed.

Those who escaped arrest fled to Mozambique by 1907 the revolt had been totally and ruthlessly suppressed by the Germans.


Poor organization: The Africans were poorly organized in their resistance. The magic water did not protect the warriors and this discouraged them. The Hehe and the Nyamwezi did not join the revolt moreover, as the German’s increase their military pressure, some tribes simply surrendered. Leaving others to fight on their own.

Superior weapons by the Germans. They had better weapons than the Africans and when they received reinforcement by troops and arms from Germany and other parts of German colonies in Africa,which overwhelmed the rebels.

Lack of military Unity: Africans lacked military unity and strategy. They did not have a single leader to co-ordinate  their military operations. Each tribe had its own fighting force under a tribal leader. Some Africans like Hehe. Supported the Germans because their traditional enemies, the Pogoro, Mbunga, Sagara and Ngoni were fighting against the Germans.

Scorched – earth Policy: The Germans burnt crops, destroyed livestock and other property. This weakened and discouraged  the Africans.


  • The maji maji rebellion led to great destruction of property like houses and crops.
  • Generally, the area was depopulated because about 75,000 Africans died during the war and from the famine that was caused by the revolt.
  • There was displacement for those who survived the war and famine as they moved to other areas in search of food some of the leaders who did not die daring to fight were arrested by Germans and executed.
  • The failure of the revolt caused ill- feelings among the people and created richer tribal differences  that lingered throughout the 1st half of the 20th.
  • The Germans learned a lesson from the maji maji. They changed their colonial system of administration and resolved to make some reforms.
  • The people of South Eastern Tanganyika learned that it was important to unite against a common enemy if they needed to attain freedom.
  • They also learned that it was futile to resort to armed resistance against a colonial master possessing better weapons.


Resistance, 1891 – 1897.

Samori Ibn Latiya Toure was the founder of the Mandinka Empire and one of the greatest leaders’ of the resistance of European colonization in West Africa.

He was born in 1830 in Sanankoro, a village situated to the south – east of Kankan in the present day Guinea. He was of the Mandinka origin and belonged to the Dylan, a clan of long distance traders who traveled to may parts of West Africa and traded in gold and cattle.

His mother was captured by Suri Birama, a local chief when he was a teenager he enlisted in Suri Birama’s army where he served for seven years to secure the release of his mother.

He began the creation of his empire in the 1860s by capturing Kimaduga. He made Bisandugu his capital city in 1886.

He conquered states like Toro wasulunke, Konia and Kankan. In 1874, he took the title of Al-Iman, that is , the spiritual and political leader of his people.

He controlled a large empire, which he divided into 62 districts consisting of about 20 villages each. The districts were grouped into ten provinces.

Chiefs, soldiers and religions leaders were involved in the administration of the empire.

He had a large standing army, which had the job of expanding and later defending the empire it was composed of professional soldiers called sofa as well as cadets called blacker.

He had Sud especially trained budge guards and he was the commander – in – chief of his forces.

In 1882, he came into contact with the French for the 1st time he used both diplomacy and warfare to encounter the French incursions into his territory.

He sought the friendship of the British but did not receive it as the British did not want to interfere in areas French interest in conformity with the terms of the Berlin conference of 1884 – 85.

  • He wanted to retain Mandinka Empire as the French had begun invading it.
  • He wanted to retain his independence against the French rule.
  • He wanted to protect some of his important centers. Like Bure God mines,
  • As a Muslim, the French were infidels who were to be chased away.
  • Samori had confidence to fight because of his wealth and well equipped military.


Between 1882 – 80 the French and Samori was      their forces. The French even approached Samori for a boundary settlement. This resulted in the Treaty of Bisandugu on 28th March 1880.

Samori gave the French all his territories north river Niger in return for their friendship, The French met Samori’s territory and their protectorate ,Samori protested but to the local and the British, from whom he expected support, did not assist him.

Samori resorted to warfare between 1991 – 98 he had an army of about the one’s the French had. He used guerrilla warfare and fielded only part of his army at a time.

He had divided his army into three gaps. The 1st one, armed with rifles, engaged the French and then retreated. The second organized the people, evacuated them and led them on their cast wards exodus. The third conquered new areas for the settlement of the people.

As they moved, they carried out the scratched – earth policy, whereby, they burnt villages, crops and everything else of value after taking what they needed.

The location of Samori second empire was not as good as the 1st one. At first ,he was cut off from the gold fields of Wangara where he used to obtain the gold and buy five arms.

The British occupied Asante in 1896, so Samori could not advance in that direction likewise the French had occupied all the other surrounding areas by 1898 and Samori was, therefore stuck at Dabakala.

He surrendered to the French in 1898, as he was departed to Gabon where he died in 1900.


Religion inspiration. Samori was a devout Muslim ruler who was determined to ream in independent.

A well equipped army. He used his enormous wealth to buy from arms and horses for his large army.

Aims workshops. Apart from the arms purchased, he used had gunsmiths who manufactured guns and rifles.

Guerilla war. He used both guerilla war and the scorched -policy that is destroys everything site.

Diplomacy, when he was not ready he peace tactics where time to prepare.


  • During the assistance the British and not protect Samori and his kingdom as they had agreed.
  • He Samori expanded is empire; he came into conflict with other African rulers such as Tieba of Sikasso and Seku Ahmadu of the Tieba of Sikasso and Seku Ahmadu of the Tonka Empire. Those rulers later supported the French against samori, leading to his defeat.
  • Samori was a Muslim jihadist who became unpopular among non-muslims in the territories he occupied such people usually supported the French for they Saw them as their savior from Islamic imperialism. The scorched earth policy used by Samori during the war led to the destruction of properly in the territories.
  • He lost some of the territories he had earlier occupied like Gold mines.
  • The movement carloads also made difficult for him to purchase fire-arms easily from the coast due to the long distance and the presence of Europeans along the way.


  • Many people lost their lives due to war and famine.
  • There was destruction of property by useful. Scotched – earth policy
  • He formed the background of mid- twentieth African independence campaigns against the French West Africa.
  • The Mandinka lost their independence some they colonist as the French established their in the area.
  • They did loss control over all their trading activities gold mines.
  • Samori Toure was finally captured and reported to Ghana where he died in 1900.
  • The people of mandinka were forced to from their areas and therefore became refugees because of the war.
  • The people of Mandinka experienced mass starvation due to scorched – earth policy and neglect of Farming activities.


The British occupation of Matebele land and mashona land in Southern Rhodesia (modern Zimbabwe), took place during the reign of Lobengula, son of Mzilikazi. The kingdom collapsed at the hands of the British South Africa Company.

In 1888, he faced the ambitious South African millionaire, Cecil John Rhodes, whose aim was to demise central Africa for Britain. Rhodes convinced the British high commissioner at the cape dungy to get the help of Rev. Joss Moffat, to obtain a treaty from Lobengula. Rev. Joss Moffat was the son of Herbert Moffat, the pioneer missionary in Bechaanal had been friendly.

The result of moffat’s visit was the signing of the Moffat treaty of 11th February 1888. This was understood by Lobengula to be a friendship treaty with terms that he should not enter into diplomatic relations with any other power without the sanction of the British.

As more concession seekers continued to visit Matabeleland, Rhodes wanted the British to have a monopoly over the area, so Charles Rudds with two companions Thompson and empire to see Lobengula and sick a treaty giving the British in his kingdom. This led to the signing of the Rudds concession of 1888, which Cecil Rhodes used to abstain a charter for the British South Africa company in October 1889 and the British government.

The Rudds concession gave civil exclusive rights to exploit minerals in Lobengula’s territory. Lobengula agreed to grant the concession of land or mineral rights without Rudds consent in ration, he was to receive a monthly payment of  100 rights and ammunition, and a gunboat on River Zambezi or instead.

After getting the charter Rhodes made plans for the occupation of mashona. This was successfully done in 1890 by the pioneer columns.


Causes of War

  • It was caused by the British occupation of Matabeleland land .
  • Lobengula and the Ndebele lost control over their subjects, the shona.
  • The Ndebele were prevented by the British from raiding the Shona.
  • The Ndebele had lost their land and property.
  • They also reseated forced labour in the mines, farms and homes of the British South Africa company officials.


War broke out in October 1693 when Ndebele killed the Shona Servants belonging to the whites. Lobengula evacuated Bulawayo, his capital and fled northwards people. He died in 1884 and his Indunas, as his generals then surrendered to the British.

Having failed to find minerals in mashona land the settlers helped to do on Matabeleland. The Ndebele order-in-council of 18th July, 1894, empowered the company to improve it tax, establish a native department and control the colonial of Southern Rhodesian

By 1895, most of Matabeleland had been occupied and reserves crated for the Ndebele. There cat were confiscated and they shona were forced to work in European homes, mines and farms.

The Results of the War.

  • There was widespread starvation among the Ndebele as their livestock had been seized by the British.
  • There was disruption of Ndebele economic activities as they were prohibited from carrying out agricultural activities before they had surrendered.
  • The Ndebele lost their land which was alienated for settlement by the British.
  • The Ndebele lost their independence as British rule was declared over their territory.

THE SHONA – NDEBELE (Chimurenga) 1896– 1897

The 1893 Ndebele war led to another aimed conflict from 1896 to 1897. This war was known as the Shona – Ndebele war or Chimurenga war. It begun in March in matabeleland and in June 1896 in Mashonaland. The Shona was Ndebele had various grievances against the British.


  • The Ndebele lost their independence
  • They lost their land which was occupied by the British settlers.
  • They also lost their cattle to the company whose officials thought belonged to Lobengula.
  • The company administration also imposed a hat tax which was collective with too much brutality.
  • The Africans were forced to work on European farms and mines.
  • The Ndebele also disliked the native police force which was mostly composed of the shona.


The revels started by killing European on their isolated farms and the African policeman employed by the British South African Company.

Within a week they had killed about the Europeans. The Shona and the Ndebele used al the weapon they could by their hands on.

The Shona and the Ndebele were organized by their Mlimo cult and medium spirit leaders.

Mkwati and signgamatisha were very active in Matabeleland land with the encouragement of Lobengula’s son, Nyamanda and the Ndebele chief priest, Ungulu.

Banda and TshiNwa organized the Shona into military regiments, men, women and children were all involved in the efforts to send the whiter man away.

Reinforcements had to be      in from other parts of Southern Africa to suppress the revolt. The Africans resorted to guerilla warfare in the Matope and other hills. This revolt ended in December, 1896. While that of the Shona Continued until October 1897.


  • The Shona and Ndebele were defeated due to lack of Superior weapons many nations lost their lives.
  • The B.S.A.C confiscated earlier and annexed there land as compensation for the destruction due during war.
  • The Shona and Ndebele had united during the ware were settled in different areas and find separated so as to project any future alliance against the British.
  • The defeat of the Shona and the Ndebele let to their using faith in their traditional religious beliefs as they followed Christianity.
  • The unity of Shona and Ndebele had some upcoming in their struggle for independence in the 20th Centruary.
  • Since the Ndebele, surrendered earlier than the Shona, thing government some factors from the unites which were denied the Shona.
  • The famine that resulted from the war prompted Khoeds to order for, 1,000,000 bags of grain from South African.


This was the process of accepting and accommodating Europeans occupation without resistance. They did this to safeguard their positions against internal power struggles or as a protection from stronger external or neighbouring societies.


It was ruled by Kabaka it had a large army and navy and was engaged in long distance trade with the Arabs and Swahilis from the Coast.

The 1st European to reach Buganda was John Speke, a traveler in 1862 and followed by James Grant.

Henry Marton Stanley, a reporter from the New York herald. He first visited East Africa in 1871 whom he was sent to look for Dr. David Living stone he also visited Mutesa court in d1875.

Kabarak Mutesa accepted theChristian missionarie due to

He wanted help against Khadive Ismails threats in his Northern Districts.

The Mukama of Bungoro was his traditional among, so be sought help.

He also wanted technological experts to teach the people some those skills.

The 1st missionaries to arrive were protestants of the church missionary society(EMS) from Britain in 1877 followed by the Roman Catholic while fathers in 1897 Kabala Mutesa confined the missionaries in his capital Rubaga  converted people to Christianity.

When mutesa died, four religious groups had emerged. Protestants, Roman, Catholic, Muslims and the traditionalists.

He was succedded by his son Mwanga who was 18 years old Mwanga associated himself with young Christians but turned against them and killed 30 in May 1886 for organizing to give up their faith.

The period from 1888 – 90 was time of political upheaval in Buganda Mwanga was overthrown and exiled to Se se Island on lake Victoria but he was help by Christian (catholic and protestants) that he was able to recapture his throne in 1890.

In 1890, Uganda officially became among the British spheres of influence it was to be administered by the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC).

In 1891, Frederick Lugard signed a treaty of protection with Kabaka Mwanga realized that he was expected to be just a puppet while the real power rested in the hands of the British administrators. He revolt against the British in 1897. Which failed as some of his people supported the British he was arrested and exiled to Kismayu in 1899 and later to the Seychelles, where he died in 1903.

The British made Daudi Chwe, Mwanga’s infant son the new Kabaka. Since he was too young to rule, three senior ministers the katikiro (P.M), Chief justice and treasurer were made his agents. They were Apollo Kg Star   Mugoanya and Zachary Kisingiri respectively.


It was signed between the British and Baganda. The agreement considered four factors, namely; Boundaries the system of government land ownership and finance.

Terms of the Buganda agreement.

  • Her boundary was defined and her size almost doubled by the inclusion of areas recently acquired from Bungoro.
  • The government could not make laws to do anything contrary to the wishes of the protectorate government. A British Resident was to be stationed in Buganda to advise the Kabaka and his government and safeguard the interest of the protectorate government..
  • Half of the land was made crown land and people were allowed to live on  tenancy basis.
  • A hut tax of three  rupees and a gun tax were imposed. All revenues were to go to the protectorate government.


  • It gave them a basis for the administration of Buganda, whose position in the protectorate was strengthened.
  • The Kabaka’s Saza chiefs were the real beneficiaries of this agreement. The new land tenure gave them land and the right to impose land rent.
  • The increase of the Sazas from 10 to 20 by the confirmation of Buganda’s annexation of several countries from Banyoro, caused friction later, with Bunyoro over her lost countries


  • The introduction of Christian and European influence in Buganda.
  • The conversion of the most of the workers of the Kabaka to Christianity ensured the establishment of British rule in Uganda.
  • Islamic influence to the kingdom declined as that of the Christians grew stronger.
  • The Baganda kingdom used their Christians spreads to check and counter the omukama of Bunyoro kingdom.
  • Kabaka’s powers were reduced in the face of growing educated members of the Lukiiko.
  • The Buganda was given an advantage and position in the colonial administration.


They were ruled byLewanika. He had ascended the chieftaincy in 1884, but it was only after suppressing a bloody revolt that he was able to establish  himself firmly on the throne on which he set up to 1916.

Lewanika responded to the European advance by asking for British protection through Sir Sydney Shippard, the British administrator of Buchanaland.


  • He wanted assistance as he had a serious revolt in Barotseland in 1884 as he wanted to secure his position as the king of the 1021.Ndebele raided the Shona from time to time, so Lawanika wanted to protect is people from them.
  • He was also influenced into making a decision about British protection by Khama, the paramount chief of the Ngwato of Botswana who had accepted British protection in 1885.
  • Lawanika wished to protect his kingdom against external invasion; he was threatened by Portuguese and Germans.
  • He desired Western education and civilization for his people.
  • He realized the futility of resisting against the British.
  • He was encouraged by missionaries to seek British protection.

The process of collaboration

Lawanika realized that the Europeans were stronger than the people of his land; he therefore sought British protection through Franco’s coillard, a missionary of the Paris evangelical mission who wrote a letter asking for British protection, because of interest from the Boer, British and Portuguese.

Harry Ware visited Lewanika in 1889 who mineral prospector, who wanted mineral concessions Lewanika did shew remarkable powers of diplomacy leading him to sing a treaty will have allowing him to prospect for minerals for period of 20yrs.

Ware sold his concession to Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes bought it  on behalf of the British South Africa company which had just been granted a charter.

This charter allowed the company to do more than mine, Rhodes sent Fredrick E. Lochner to explain these matters to Lewanika.

Lochner met Lewanika and after some negotiations, signed the Lewanika Lochner treaty in 1890.

These guaranteed the company mining rights, and to Lewanika and his people, protection from outside attacks, Lewanika was to receive ₤2,000 a year and a royalty on all minerals imported under his concession.

Robert Coryndon established his headquarters at Socheke and soon after, negotiations began for another treaty which was signed on 25th June, 1898 in the presence of Arthur Lawley.


  • There was colonial rule which was established over Northern Rhodesia without any bloodshed.
  • Lewanika was recognized and given  the title as paramount chief of the lozi until his death in 1916.
  • The British were able to use their footholds in Barotseland to subjugated the surrounding communities whi didn’t’t co-operae with them.
  • The Lozi rulers were given authority over Barotseland but under European administrator’s supervision.
  • Though Lewanika retained his position, his authority had been stripped.
  • Barotseland’s’s rights over Ivory and elephants trade were reserved.
  • Courts Rhodes company fully exploited minerals following the Lewanika Lochner concessions.
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