characteristics of a system:
- Holistic thinking: A system is considered as a whole, where the overall goals and behavior of the system are more complex and sophisticated than those of its individual components.
- Subsystems: A system is composed of different components or subsystems that work together to achieve the system’s purpose. These subsystems may also be part of larger systems.
- Boundary and environment: Each system has a defined boundary that separates it from its environment. The system interacts with its environment, which includes entities or factors outside its boundary that can influence or be influenced by the system.
- Fluid boundaries (in soft systems): Soft systems have boundaries that may change or evolve over time, as they are influenced by various factors and interactions.
- Conflict of goals and objectives (in soft systems): Soft systems often have conflicting goals and objectives that may not be clearly captured at any given time. These goals are influenced by human factors such as attitudes and preferences.
- Predictability and defined goals (in hard systems): Hard systems have clearly defined goals and objectives, and the outcomes from their processes are predictable and can be accurately modeled. They are based on proven scientific laws or engineering solutions.
- User-friendly interface: A system should be designed to be user-friendly, making it easy to learn, use, and navigate. It should provide a seamless and intuitive experience for the end-users.
- System entropy
- input / output
- System control
Remember, a good system should incorporate both hard and soft aspects, considering the holistic view while addressing specific goals and objectives.