Meaning of industry.

Industry is the manufacture of new goods from raw materials.

Early sources of energy

Energy is the force that produces motion, it also does work.


It’s the earliest source of energy used by man during the middle stone age, man invented and used fire which was used to cook and roast food.

He late used it to burn wood to harden clay pots and smelt metals and later in 18th century it was harnessed for heating water to produce steam.


  • It was cheap to obtain.
  • It was readily available from extensive natural forests.
  • It was a renewable source as trees which were cut down regenerated.


  • Continued use of wood fuel resulted in desertification.
  • Wood produces smoke that pollutes the environment.


It’s a moving air with the capacity to create energy in objects upon contact. It was used to winnow and dry grains. It was also applies for turning wind mills and propelling sailing boats and ships. As a source of power to propel dhows, boats and ships, wind influenced the Indian Ocean trade.

Wind mills are still used today to generate power and pump water.


  • It was cheap to obtain.
  • It was naturally available.
  • It was a renewable source of energy.


  • It was unreliable since it was not always available.
  • It was irregular as it was influenced by the prevailing weather and topography.
  • Excessive wind could result in destruction of life and property.


For a long time man has used energy generated by water, when water drops from a cliff or over a fall, it can be harnessed to generate power because of its high speed.


  • It was readily available in certain regions.
  • It was easy to trap and use.
  • It was renewable and non-exhaustible.
  • When coast were compared to other source it was cheap.
  • It is a clean source of energy.


  • It depended on river levels which were influenced by rainfall.
  • Excessive water could result in destruction of life and property.
  • It was renewable and non-exhaustible.

Uses of metals in Africa.

The new Stone Age was succeeded by the metallic age.

They used metal tools for agriculture and other domestic works. Metals were also used to make weapons.

Advantages of metals over stone.

  • The metals were durable and could not break easily.
  • The metals maintained the cutting edge over a long period of time.
  • Metals could be turned or made in various shapes.
  • Broken metals could be smelted and reworked into useful items.


It’s an alloy ( a mixture) of copper and tin. It began in Mesopotamia from 3000 B.C  and spread to Egypt.

Uses of bronze.

  • Weapons, like daggers, arrow-heads, spears, shields and helmets.
  • Tools like machetes (pangas) hammers and axes.
  • Ornaments like bracelets, rings and anklets.
  • Artistic items like sculptures, masks, plaques, flower vases and decoration of kings palaces.


  • It required frequently sharpening as they became blunt quickly.
  • It was expensive to produce.
  • Copper and tin necessary for manufacture of bronze were not always found at the same place.
  • It was not easy to mix copper and tin in correct proportions.
  • Availability of copper and tin depended on trade which was not always possible during war.


It’s the earliest metal used by man in its natural state.

Uses of gold.

  • House hold items, in manufacture of vases and utensils such as cups, plates and bowls.
  • Jewellery. Jewels and other decorative products were made from gold like sword handles, headgear and bangles.
  • Trade. It was used in commerce as an item of trade and a currency.
  • Currency. It was used to make coins and served as measure of wealth.


  • It’s easily obtained on the surface of the earth and river –beds.
  • It was easy to use in manufacturing of tools as it was soft.
  • Gold had a dark yellow attractive appearance.
  • Gold was easily moulded into different shapes as it was malleable.
  • Gold did not need much smelting as it was mined in almost pure form.


  • Tools made from gold easily became bent as gold was soft.
  • Gold tools were difficult to use because they were heavy.
  • Gold was not easily available in many parts of the world.


It’s a soft brown durable metal. The Egyptian was among the earliest people to use the mineral in its raw form.

Uses of copper.

  • It was used to make sheets, pipes, masks and shields.
  • It was used to make household items like vases, mirrors and pots.
  • It was used to make tools like axes, chisels, pins, fish hooks, knives and other items for use in the home.
  • It was used to make weapons like arrow-heads, spearheads, daggers, swords, helmets and shields.
  • It was used to make ornaments like bangles, rings, beads, anklets and bracelets.
  • To make alloys, copper was mixed with other metals to produce stronger metals like brass. (copper and zinc)
  • It was used for trade; copper was used as an item of trade and medium of exchange in central Africa. Egypt and West Africa.

Advantages of copper.

  • It was easy to use in making tools as it was soft.
  • Copper tools were durable as copper was harder than some other metals.
  • Copper mixed easily with other metals to produce stronger alloys.

Disadvantages of copper.

  • Copper tools bent easily because copper was soft.
  • Copper was not easily available in many parts of the world.


Items made from iron are better and stronger.

Origin of iron working in Africa.

There are two theories which have been put forward to explain the origin of iron-working in Africa.

  1. Diffusion theory

This theory holds that knowledge in iron-working came from outside the continent into North Africa from the Middle East by the Phoenicians and Assyrians.

In the course of their migration and trade, they introduced iron-working into ancient carthage (north Africa), iron –working spread to west Africa, central Africa and south Africa.

  • Independent development theory.

Iron-working emerged independently at independent centres within the continent. This is supported by archaeological work in Buhaya in North West Tanzania.

Factors which facilitated the spread of iron-working in Africa.

  • Migration where Bantu had acquired knowledge about iron-working migrated from their original homeland in the Congo and settled all over Africa.
  • Traders spread the knowledge of iron-working to the Kush and Chad basin.
  • Iron-working knowledge also spread through warfare.
  • It was also spread through intermarriages.

Uses of iron in Africa.

  • It was used for the production of stronger weapons like spears, dagger and arrows.
  • Iron was baked into pots for various uses.
  • It was used to make household items like knives and blades.
  • Smelted iron was made into usable farm implements like hoes, axes and machetes.
  • Smelted iron was made into artistic shapes of items such as sculpture and other technologically designed goods.
  • were used in construction and building like reinforcement of building such as pyramids, tombs and concrete-built palaces
  • The metals were used in empire-building and expansion of kingdoms.
  • They in its raw and smelted state, iron were used as an item of trade.

The impact of metals in Africa.

  • It led to migration as the metals were used to clear bushes and forest.
  • It also improved agriculture as large tracts of land were put into use as methods of farming changed.
  • It also leads to specialisation like division of labour.
  • With improved farming tools crop production increased leading to increased population.
  • The use of metals gained fame as they became widely used and regarded in religious rites and in the royal palaces.
  • It also leads to urbanization as trading and industrial settlement developed in major mining centres.
  • With use of metals, trading patterns and methods changed.

The industrial revolution in Europe.

It can be defined as economic and technological changes which saw the replacement of cottage industry.

 Chacteristics of the industrial revolution.

  • Invention of new system for mass production.
  • Use of machines instead of human labour.
  • Rise of factory system which replaced the cottage industries.
  • Production of goods in large quantities.
  • Continuous production with workers organised in shifts.
  • Use of new sources of energy e.g. steam, coal, electricity and oil.

Uses of various sources of energy.


It’s an underground organic mineral. It is found in tree state namely.

Anthracite coal. It’s a soft type that burns at high temperature to produce coke.

Bituminous coal. It can also be used for cooking and coal gas production. This has low heating power.

Lignite coal. It is like dirty brown coal with even less heating power.

Uses of coal.

  • It was used in iron-smelting.
  • It provided lighting.
  • Used as a raw material in the manufacture of dye and pharmaceuticals.
  • It was used to heat water to providence steam which was later converted to fuel for driving locomotives.

Disadvantages of coal.

  • It was bulky and difficult to transport.
  • It caused environmental pollution by releasing dark carbon and sulphur dioxide smoke when burning.
  • It is expensive to mine and transport.
  • Coal mining was risky as miners would get buried alive when mines collapsed.
  • It is a non-renewable source of energy.


It is found in a thick aqueous natural formation.

Oil-based energy was found to be most convenient with the invention of machines and engines.

Uses of oil.

  • It is used for domestic lighting e.g. kerosene.
  • It provides energy that drives motor vehicles, aeroplanes, ships e.t.c
  • It is used to provide power to produce thermal electricity.
  • It is used to run factory and domestic machinery.
  • It is used in lubrication of machinery.
  • Its by-product, tar, is used in the tarmacking of roads.
  • It is used in petro-chemical industries to make plastics and synthetic fibre.

Advantanges of oil.

  • It is cheaper than the other sources of energy.
  • It is easy to transport.
  • It is convenient as it can be purchased in various quantities.
  • It can be used for various purposes.

Disadvantages of oil.

  • It is non-renewable source of energy.
  • It causes a lot of environmental pollution.
  • It is highly inflammable and may cause accidents.
  • Prospecting and extraction of oil is expensive.
  • It is expensive to the non-producing countries.


Water as a source of power was cumbersome and unreliable, so steam power was developed. In the 1st century B.C, the hero of Alexandria used steam power to open the massive doors of temples in Egypt.

Uses of steam.

  • It was used for driving, spinning and weaving machines in the textile industry.
  • It was used to drive heavily machinery in factories.
  • Used in driving turbines that generated electricity for industrial use.
  • Used in driving early locomotives and steamships.

Advantages of steam.

  • It was readily available from heated water.
  • It produced a lot of energy compared to any other source of energy available at the time.
  • It was adaptable to many uses i.e. driving locomotives and generating electricity.
  • It did not pollute the environment.


  • Its generation depended on coal and this made it expensive.
  • Steam engines were huge and cumbersome hence not adaptable to many uses.
  • It was suitable only for heavy machinery in factories making it inaccessible for wide domestic use.


This is power supplied by electrically charged electrons, transmitted through cables invented by Michael faraday in 1831.

Uses of electricity.

  • It is used in lighting.
  • Used in heating and cooking.
  • Powering machines in industries.
  • Used in telecommunication system.
  • Used in running electric trains.

Advantages of electricity.

  • It is easily and conveniently controlled from one switch where a generator dynamo or motor is fixed.
  • It is further easily distributed to various users through regulatory or control switches along the cable line or lines.
  • Electric cables are flexible and can be installed as per specific requirements such as for cooking, lighting, heating and to link or connect transport and communication machines.
  • It’s used to produce different sizes and shapes of electric-charged items including heaters and refrigerators or coolers.
  • The use of electricity is further advantageous because of its production by various sources such as water, petrol and more recently the atomic, nuclear and geothermal-generated machines.
  • It’s convenient for many uses.
  • Its use can be controlled through rationing when not enough.

Disadvantages of electricity.

  • Potential sites for its production are limited.
  • The harnessing of electricity-generating resources is expensive and requires heavy capital machinery to install.
  • It’s highly dangerous and requires careful handling.
  • It requires well trained personnel for installation and maintenance.

Iron and steel.

Iron is a mineral obtained from ferrous ores. Steel is a product of highly heated iron exposed or mixed with carbon.

Uses of iron.

  • Making of water pipes.
  • Making of ox-drawn ploughs.
  • Making of machines for industries e.g. textile industries.
  • Making of steam engines.
  • Construction of trains, railway lines and ships.
  • Construction of bridges.

Disadvantages of iron.

  • On its own, iron was weak and brittle. It could not be relied on in making of heavy machinery.
  • On exposure to water or moist air, iron easily rusted.
  • It was too heavy to transport thus its usage in construction and building was hampered.

Uses of iron and steel.

  • Construction of storages buildings such as the crystal palace.
  • Making utensils/
  • Construction of railways and bridges.
  • Manufacture of machinery and motor vehicles.
  • Ship-building.

Advantages of steel over iron.

  • Steel does not rust like iron.
  • Steel is strong compared to iron.
  • Steel is not as heavy as iron.
  • Steel can bend without breaking.

Disadvantages of steel.

  • Iron was combined with other metals making steel products expensive.
  • It was difficult to mix the various metals in the correct proportion to produce good quality steel.
  • All the required metals were not always available.

Industrialization in Britain.

Up to about 1670, Britain was the most industrialized country and a major world power with a wide trading market.

Factors that favoured industriasation in Britain.

  • Inventions in the British textile industries pioneered the revolution arising in the British industries.
  • Britain hard accumulated large amounts of wealth from her trading empire and colonies.
  • Through colonisation Britain had acquired industrial raw materials and market for industrial products.
  • Britain underwent a period of developments in agriculture; these agrarian changes had great influence on industrialisation.
  • Its large population provided a market and cheap labour for the industry.
  • It had good transport and communication, her road and railway network facilitated the movement of industrial goods and products.
  • The naval forces were important as it guarded sea routes from pirates and other intruders as well as protecting the merchants in trading ports.
  • Uses of slave labour in plantations and mines in colonies greatly influenced her industrial development.
  • Britain was and has been one of the countries with a well maintained banking and insurance infrastructure.
  • Britain had for a long history of internal political stability.
  • There were cottage industries that became the pioneers in large-scale factory investments.
  • Britain had an abundant supply of skilled labour for her industries and economy.
  • The country had adequate energy resources.
  • The government encouraged a free and open-market economy.

Industrialisation in continental Europe.

The industrial revolution started from Britain in about 1750, this spread to continental Europe by 1850.

Factors that led to industrialisation in continental Europe.

  • Most of the countries had adequate supply of resources such as coal and iron-ore to provide energy and new materials.
  • These countries also experienced political stability.
  • The high population in these countries offered both skilled and unskilled labour for the factories.
  • In all countries they strived to improve transport network through construction of roads, railways and canals.
  • Most of the countries had undergone agrarian revolution.
  • These countries had capital for industrial development through investment by wealthy merchants.
  • They had varied sources of energy for industrial development.
  • Availability of new skills in science and technology.

Effects of industrial revolution in Europe.

Political effects.

  • It leads to the scramble and partition of Africa.
  • It led to the birth and growth of maxims. This was ideology which was advanced by karl marx (1818-1863). It condemned capitalism for its exploitative tendency.
  • It led to growth of a middle class, comprising of urban workers who became vocal in demanding for reforms and took on active role in the decision-making process.
  • The revolution led to the emergence of the trade union movement.
  • There were many unemployed people who offered a fertile ground for grievances and organisations opposed to the state.

Social effects.

  • It created new social groups notably the urban and rural society.
  • It led to rural-urban migrations as many people migrated to the towns.
  • It also led to population growth in Europe.
  • It also led to improved medical services.
  • High population in towns led to a shortage of housing.
  • There was growth in pauperism or state of begging due to high levels of unemployment in towns.
  • High incidence of child labour, where children and women workers were exposed to dangerous working conditions for long hours.
  • It led to sound air and water pollution.

Ecomonic effects.

  • It led to improvement in agriculture due to market, fertilizers and machines.
  • There were marked improvements in transport and communication patterns in Europe.
  • It led to expansion of international trade as industrial countries were looking for markets to sell their products.
  • Urban factories could not cope with the large numbers of rural- urban migrants who were seeking jobs. This led to high unemployment rate.
  • The development and spread of factory based industries slowly forced the decline and collapse of cottage – based set-ups.
  • Through the industrial revolution, European nations were able to make a lot of wealth.
  • It also led to urbanization in Europe.
  • It also led to scientific inventions related to machinery, transport and communication.

The scientific revolution.

It refers to a period in history when many discoveries were made about the universe. The discoveries and development in science increased human knowledge and understanding about the universe.

It began in Europe during the renaissance period (1400AD). This was a period of rebirth of leaning and exploration.

Early scientific inventions.

The world ancient civilizations contributed in various fields of science such as medicine, biology, chemistry and geometry.

Ancient Egypt: Egyptians were famous mathematicians and used their knowledge to construct wonderful pyramids (tombs) they also invented geometry which they used on their farms.

Ancient china: they were main contributors in astronomy. The Chinese were the 1st to record what came to be called“ Halley’s Comet”. This is a heavenly body with s very bright head and less luminous tail orbiting round the sun.

Arab and Muslim scholars: in astronomy, they studied the writings of Ptolemy, a Greek scientist, about the solar system. In mathematics, they borrowed the idea of zero from the Indians.

Ancient India: they develop mathematics by introducing zero which made multiplication easier, in medicine, Indians found cures for snake bites and leprosy.

Factors which facilitated the scientific revolution.

  • The need to find solutions to day to day problems encouraged scientific research.
  • The renaissance period in Europe encourage scholarship in different fields of scientific research.
  • Discovery of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg of Germany in 1447 enabled the printing of books and journals and this enhanced the spread of scientific ideas.
  • Government and wealthy individuals provided funds to support scientific research.
  • Voyages of exploration led to discovery of new lands and encourage interest in new spheres of knowledge and research.

Key personalities in the scientific revolution.

Robert boyle: worked on an air and discovered that air was important for combustion and respiration. He also established that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.

Copernicus (1473-1543): he gave an account of the rotation of the earth on its axis and its movement around the sun.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): he discovered force of gravity. He proved that the same force attracted the moon to the earth. The earth itself was similarly pulled to the sun. He also invented the reflecting telescope.

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94): he made successful experiments in chemistry to show the composition of air. He showed that it was made up of different elements, hydrogen and oxygen.

John Dalton (1766-1844): he discovered the atomic theory. According to him all substance are up of atoms which are the smallest particles of matter in the universe. He also discovered and described colour blindness.

Michael faraday (1791-1867): played a key role in the field of electricity. He produced electricity form a magnet and in the process made a dynamo which efficiently provided electricity.

Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882): he invented a vaccine for smallpox.

Louis Pasteur: he discovered the process of pasteurisation for the conservation of liquid foods such as milk.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): showed that lighting was a form of electricity.

William Merton (1819-1866): discovered that ether could keep patients asleep during an operation and so make them either feel less pain or no pain at all.

Alexander graham bell. Invented the telephone in 1877.

The impact of the scientific inventions.

Positive effects

  • It has led to improvement in farming methods and animals – husbandry.
  • The invention of machines to replace human labour has quickened the agriculture process.
  • Discovery of food preservation method has minimised lose of agriculture produce.
  • Agriculture has been transformed from small-scale subsistence farming to a large scale economic activity.
  • It has led to fast transportation of farm inputs; this has reduced on time and enabled farmers to earn maximum profit.
  • Marketing of farm inputs and outputs has been improved by scientific invention through availability of telecommunication.
  • Scientific invention has resulted into setting up of industries which consume agricultural produce directly as raw materials.

Negative effects.

  • Continuous use of artificial fertilizers had led to siol impoverishment.
  • Continuous use of hybrid species has led to loss of some traditional plant and animal species which are more resistant to diseases.
  • Pesticide, fertiliser and the farm inputs are expensive.
  • Some agro-chemicals, e.g. pesticides, fungicides, fertilisers are toxic and therefore harmful to both plants and animals life.

Impact on industry

Positive effects.

  • The invention of machines and new sources of power has led to emergence of more factories and mills.
  • The invention of vaccines and drugs to control human diseases led to population growth rate.
  • The invention of printing press has led to mass production of newspapers, magazines, periodicals and books.
  • The discovery of steam power greatly revolutionaries transport industry as it led to the railway age with the invention of George Stephenson’s rocket.
  • The discovery of steam, electricity and petroleum has led to the building of new iron and steel factories.
  • Industrial developments have created job opportunities both skilled and unskilled.
  • Production of industrial goods in large quantities has promoted the growth in trade.

Negative effects.

  • Widespread industrialisation has led to an increased in industrial affluent hence leading to environmental pollution.
  • Automation in industries has led to loss of jobs.
  • Invention and production of military hardware has led to massive loss of lives and destructive wars.

Impacts of medicine.

Positive effects.

  • Scientific inventions led to i.e. eradication of killer disease e.g. smallpox
  • It led to cleaner, safer and less painful surgical operation.
  • It has made it possible for one to have a new face or look through plastic surgery.
  • The invention of x-ray has made it possible to examine the extent of broken bones.
  • The development of babies in the tubes through external fertilisation has helped childless couples to have children.
  • It has made it possible for one to have a heart, liver and kidney transplant.

Negative effects.

  • Some of the inventions are expensive and beyond the reach of many people.
  • Overdependence on drugs has weekend immune system due to development of resistance.
  • Invention of safer abortions has led to immorality and loses of life in some countries.
  • The failure of some scientific inventions and research has led to emergence of some resistance strains of diseases.

Emergence of selected world industrial powers.

The united states of America (USA)

It has 52 states that are in the union or confederacy. It is one of the largest countries of the world, extending from the western Atlantic coastline to the Pacific Ocean in the west.

It became independence in 1776 from England and recognised as an independent nation in 1781.

Factors that lead to industrial revolution in U.S.A

  • Raw materials were readily available like iron ore, oil from the oil fields in Texas, copper and coal.
  • There was both skilled and unskilled labour who was European immigrants.
  • U.S.A government developed transport system and communication like railways lines, telephones, fax and internet.
  • There were scientific innovations as education system in U.S.A also promoted research with further boosted industrialization.
  • The government in U.S.A allowed foreign investments especially from Britain and other countries.
  • America had ready markets; America’s high population ensured a large domestic market for her industrial products.
  • There were enterprising citizens. The Americans were always ready to venture into business.
  • U.S.A had long periods of political stability since independency in the second half of the 18th century.
  • There was available source of energy like coal, petroleum, gas and hydroelectric power.
  • The U.S.A philosophy of capitalism encourages both local and external investors because it allowed private ownership of property.
  • The government of the U.S.A under presidents’ Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson provide transport system.
  • During the 1st and 2nd world wars the European industrialized nations were not able to produce industrial goods as they were busy fighting. This enabled usa to expand her market for manufactured goods since she initially decline to keep off the war.


Until 1871, Germany was not united as one nation with a single ruler, with the completion of the france-prussian war of 1870-1871; these small states were united with Prussia to form Germany.

Germany then began to develop her industries and by the start of the 20th century she had achieved a lot in terms of industrialization.

Emergence of Germany as an industrial power.

  • Establishment of the customs union, zollverein. This was a customs union which linked the Germany states together and removed trade barriers hence leading to free trade and economic growth in Germany.
  • Availability of energy for use in industries like coal.
  • There was natural resources which were used in industries like water and minerals like iron ore.
  • There was availability of labour which was willing to work.
  • The industrial products in Germany found a wide market in Germany’s large population.
  • Existence of good transport and communication networks.
  • Their existence along period of political stability in Germany after the unification in 1871 by prince otto von bismark.
  • The availability of finance for industrial growth, this capital was from the rich Germany citizens who went for loans from local banks and U.S.A in 1924.
  • The hardworking and enterprising nature of the Germans.


Until the middle of the 18th century agriculture was the backbone of her economy, she also faced years of civil war and conflict.

Emergence of Japan as an industrial power.

  • She had enterprising citizens who were hard working and determined community.
  • Japan has experienced a long period of political stability especially after world war 11.
  • The japans work for life. This policy means that when one is employed in Japan, they put the interest of the employer first.
  • Japanese goods, e.g. motor vehicles are high quality and have a wide market in Africa, U.S.A, and Europe.
  • Japan has highly developed renewable hydro-electric power.
  • Skilled and unskilled labour was readily available.
  • Japan developed a good system of transport and communication.
  • The existing industrial base before world war 11, Japan had already attained a certain level of industrial development.
  • The Japanese government invited foreign expatriates and deployed them to local industries.
  • Geographical factors also favoured industrialization in Japan.
  • Japan had an open investment policy which encouraged the west to invest in her industries.

Industrialization in the third world.

  • The third world refers to the developing countries which depend on foreign aid and grants for their development ventures.
  • Many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization due to a number of reasons.
  • Long periods of colonization relegated them to the role of suppliers of raw materials and as a market for industrial goods from develop countries at the expense of their own industries.
  • There is poor transport and communication has undermined industrialization.
  • Most developing nations have poor economies which can’t support meaningful industrialization.
  • Most of the developing countries are lagging behind in the use of appropriate technology required in the manufacturing of goods and in the exploitation of natural resources.
  • A large portion of the population in developing countries is made up of illiterate and semi- literate people.
  • The protectionist policies adopted by developing countries have discouraged private enterprises and foreign investment.
  • There is low market due to low purchasing power of most of the population.
  • There is political instability in third world countries.
  • Third world nations often have poor disaster management strategies.
  • There is lack of skilled personnel in third world countries.


It’s the fourth largest nation in the world after Canada, china and U.S.A. It attained independency in 1882 from Portugal and gained republican status in 1889. She has established technology, sophisticated industries, especially in the field of telecommunications, electronic data-processing, and biotechnology.

Four main sectors of Brazilian industrialization.

Petroleum and petrochemical industries. It has produced enough oil to supply 55% of the Brazilian demand.

Motor vehicle industry. It produces more than two million vehicles and earns about us$ ₂ billion in foreign exchange.

Aircraft and aerospace industry.

Electricity generation industry.

Factors influencing industrialization in Brazil.

  • Availability of both skilled and unskilled labour supply from the country’s large population.
  • External markets with other countries have increased.
  • Enough natural resources are available like coal, iron ore, uranium, manganese, gold and oil, provided raw materials for industries.
  • Improved transport and communication like railway lines and telephone and telegraph lines.
  • Development of banking for provision of loans to individuals who wanted to venture into the business.
  • Good economic policies which encouraged development of transport and communication, HEP and oil exploration.
  • Foreign capital which was used to establish industries in the country.
  • The countries industrialization was boosted by the HEP and coal which were readily available.
  • The main obstacles of industrialization in Brazil.
  • High poverty levels as more than 40% the Brazilian population is poor and therefore has low purchasing power.
  • Inability to fully exploit her natural resources.
  • Stiff competition from already industrialized nations for manufactured goods.
  • Huge foreign debts as a lot of money are used to service these loans instead of investing it in industries.
  • It has poor technology to allow for the effective exploitation of her resources.

South Africa.

It has struggle along time against the policy of apartheid which had subjected the black majority in the country to economic, political and social hardship up to 1994.

Many industries during the apartheid period, the main industries included iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism.

Factors influencing industrialization in SA.

  • Availability of natural resources for process by her industries like iron and steel industries, lead, zinc, bauxite and tin.
  • The industrial goods from SA are of high quality and can therefore compete favourably with those from the developed nations.
  • The high population provided both skilled and unskilled labour for the industry.
  • Development of source of energy like (HEP).
  • Road, water and railway transport system are greatly developed in SA.
  • Air transport is also well developed. The international airports enhance business operation.
  • Availability of capital. The government of SA gets her capital mainly from trade in other materials.
  • Political stability, especially after the end of apartheid rule.
  • The government of SA has adopted good policies of promoting industrialization in the country by putting tariffs on the imported commodities.
  • SA is also endowed with a variety of wildlife and scenic landscape that attracts tourists to the country.

Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.

  • The discriminatory apartheid policy that discriminated Africans.
  • The apartheid policy embraced by the minority white rule often met stiff resistance from the majority black population.
  • Completion from the more developed countries like western European countries with superior goods.
  • There were rampant industrial strikes in the country, especially during the apartheid periods.
  • High poverty levels, a big number of the SA population are poor, therefore low purchasing power.
  • SA has a high level of insecurity which, at times, discourages foreign investors.
  • The HIV and AIDS scourge has ravaged the countries labour force, especially industrial labour.


Industrial development is associated with European entry into the country from the 15th century.

During the middle ages, European trades established trading posts along the coast of India.

India attained her independence from Great Britain in 1947, since then she embarked on vigorous and ambitious industrialization programmes, by the end of the 20th century India had emerged as one of the most successful stories of industrialized states in the developing or third world.

Factors that contributed to industrialization in India.

  • Through colonization and colonisers industrialisation was brought in India.
  • There was good transport and communication like railway and roads.
  • There were cottage industries like weaving of cotton to make cloths.
  • Indian had raw materials like coal, iron0ore and manganese.
  • The 1st independent government of prime minister pandit nehm, embarked on policies to modernise the economy and expand established factories.
  • The independent government formulated five-year plan to boost her industries like agriculture sector.
  • Indians adopted a unique foreign policy on industrialisation.
  • India’s large population has been a great asset for the supply of labour and the provision of ready market for industrial products.
  • India developed her coal resources for the supply of fuel to locomotives and industries in support of her industrial establishment.
  • Dual state private investment where Indian government has success fully used as duel approach to industrialise.
  • Indian industries enjoy a large domestic market with foreign market within the third world.
  • There was good entrepreneurship with good investment largely in India and a good number of the business or commercial acumen has penetrated third world cities.

Challenges facing industrialisation in India.

  • Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes which destroy infrastructure, leading to economic losses.
  • High poverty level among the Indian population has resulted into a low purchasing power.
  • Indian suffers massive brain-drain.
  • India has on many occasions fought with Pakistan and sectarian unrests.
  • The HIV/AIDS pandemics are spreading at a faster rate in India.
  • Indian products face stiff competition with other products from developing countries.
  • Problems hindering industrialization in the third world.
  • Lack of adequate funds to invest in the industrial sector is caused by high rate of population growth and rampant poverty.
  • Lack skilled manpower mainly because of the poor education system that lay less emphasis on scientific, technical and vocational training.
  • Poor means of transport and communication in third world countries have greatly hindered transport of raw materials.
  • There is stiff competition from high quality and cheaply produced goods from developed countries.
  • There is a free open local market but the purchasing power is low because is low because of poverty.
  • Political instability does not offer a conducive and enabling environment to attract foreign investment.
  • The issue of colonial and neo-colonial legacies.
  • There are rapid population growth rates due to improved medical and health services; this effect has called for massive expenditure on food impetration.
  • Third world countries have been subjected to epidemic catastrophes.
  • Industrialization in the third world is greatly checked by large expenditures on military hardware for defence and security.

Solutions to challenges facing third world industrial programmes.

  • Provision of capital and credit to their people to reduce poverty.
  • Improve the purchasing power of their people by increasing incomes.
  • Encourage industrial investment by giving incentive and protection to local manufacturing sectors.
  • Develop and extend the transport and communication infrastructure.
  • Diversification of the economy and manufacturing industries.
  • Promote and provide scientific and technological education to the people.
  • Reduce military expenditures and divert finds for the manufacture of products for wide domestic and external markets.
  • Boost and encourage regional co-operation for a wider industrial market.
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