THE SINAI COVENANT AND MOSES

THE SINAI COVENANT AND MOSES

The call of Moses

Exodus 3:1-22

The call of Moses took place as follows;

  • Moses had gone to look after his father-in-law’s flocks near Mt. Horeb/ Mt. Sinai which means mountain of God.
  • An angel appeared to him as a burning bush which was not being consumed.
  • Moses moved near to see what was happening and God called him by his name in the middle of the Burning bush.
  • He was instructed not to move any closer and to remove his shoes because the place where he was standing was Holy ground.
  • God assured Moses that he was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
  • Moses hid his face because he was afraid to look at God.
  • God told him he had seen the suffering of his people (Israelites) and was ready to liberate them from Egypt.
  • God commanded Moses to go to Egypt to free the Israelites.
  • Moses protested that he was not worthy but God gave him the assurance that;
  • God would protect him and be with him.
  • They would worship God at Mt.Sinai after leaving Egypt.
  • Moses asked God what his name was and God replied, “I am who I am,” meaning:
  • God was what He was in the past and will always be the same i.e. God is eternal.
  • God does not change with time or situations.
  • There is no human description of God.
  • God then assured Moses that the Israelites would respond positively while Pharaoh would be stubborn until several miracles were done.
  • Moses was given two signs as a proof that he was God’s messenger.
  • His rod/ walking stick/ staff turned into a snake;
  • His hand was affected by leprosy.
  • Moses being a stammerer was given Aaron as his spokesperson.
  • Moses later left for Egypt with his family.

Reasons why Moses was reluctant to accept God’s call

  1. He was a murderer.
  2. He was a fugitive / a run away.
  3. He was a stammerer.
  4. He was not sure of God/ God’ name.
  5. The people would doubt him.
  6. He knew Pharaoh would refuse to let the people go.
  7. He felt he was worth the task.

Attributes of God learnt during the call of Moses

  1.  God isHoly/pure.  He told Moses to remove his shoes for he was standing on a Holy place.
  2. God ears the cries of his people/answers prayers Vs.7.
  3. Just/God punishes the wrong doers.
  4. Deliverer.Vs.8.
  5. God of History,vs. 15 and Vs. 6
  6. Caring/loving/ merciful/ compassionate.Vs.7.
  7. Faithful/ fulfills promises e.g. fulfilled the promise made to Abraham.
  8. Demands faith and obedience from those he calls/sends.
  9. Transcendent/mysterious/beyond human understanding e.g. burning bush.
  10. Personal/knows us by name e.g. called Moses by his name.vs.4.
  11. Uses human beings to accomplish a task e.g. Moses/God commissions people to perform certain tasks/ works through people He chooses.
  12. Empowers those He sends/doesn’t give people impossible tasks e.g. enabled Moses to perform miracles e.g. changing stick into snake.
  13. Awesome/demands respect vs.5/ worthy of respect.
  14. Knows our suffering vs.7.  He had seen the affliction of His people in Egypt.
  15. Has power over nature/all powerful vs.2 e.g.bush burning though not getting consumed/ almighty/ omnipotent.
  16. Eternal. vs. 14 I AM WHO I AM.
  17. All-knowing i.e. knows us by name, our sufferings e.t.c.
  18. Protects his people vs. 12 e.g. promised to protect Moses.
  19.  God is omnipresent.
  20. Uses events to reveal Himself to people e.g. burning bush.
  21. God is miracle working God.

What Moses learnt from this incident/call about God

  1. God is a God of History i.e. He is a God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
  2. God is loving and caring and is concerned with the welfare of his people.
  3. God is transcendent i.e. He is beyond human understanding and description.
  4. God chooses whoever he wills to carry out his plans e.g. He chose Moses, a murderer, fugitive stammerer.
  5. God expects total faith and obedience from the people he chooses to serve him.
  6. God fulfills his promises i.e. he was ready to deliver the Israelites from bondage/ slavery he had promised Abraham.

Christian values learnt from the call of Moses

  1. Humility.
  2. Courage.
  3. Faith.
  4. Love/ mercy/ care.
  5. Honesty.
  6. Obedience.
  7. Reverence/ respect/ honour/ God-fearing.
  8. Service.
  9. Holiness.
  10. Inquisitiveness/ knowledge/ curosity.
  11. Patience/ persistence.
  12. Justice.

 

THE TEN PLAGUES

Exodus 7:14-11:1-10

Introduction

  • When Moses reached Egypt, he gathered all the Israelite elders then told them what God had sent him to do.
  • He performed all the miracles God had shown him and the Israelite elders believed in his mission.
  • When Pharaoh was approached to let the Israelites go, he became stubborn and increased the workload for the Israelites
  • Moses had to perform plagues on Egypt.  (A plague may be a disease or an unfortunate occurrence in one’s life) (Exodus 7:4 – 5)
  • The signs and the wonders of the plagues were to make the Israelite and Egyptians know that only Yahweh was worthy of the title God.

1. The plague of blood (Exodus 7:14 – 25)

  • Moses was commanded by God to tell Aaron to strike the waters of the Nile.
  • He did this in the presence of Pharaoh and the waters of the Nile turned into blood.
  • All the fish died and there was no water to drink.  This lasted seven days.
  • He did not release the Israelites.

2. Plague of frogs (Exodus 8:1 – 15)

  • The Lord commanded Moses to tell Aaron to stretch his hand over the streams, canals and ponds.
  • Aaron did as was commanded and there were frogs all over the land of Egypt.
  • On seeing this, Pharaoh pleaded with Moses and Aaron to pray to the Lord to get rid of the frogs and he would release them.
  • They prayed and all the frogs died when Pharaoh saw that the frogs were dead, he changed his mind.

3. Plague of gnats (Exodus 8:16 – 19)

  • Gnats are small two-winged biting flies.
  • The Lord instructed Moses to tell Aaron to strike the ground.
  • Aaron did and all the dust in Egypt turned into gnats.
  • The gnats covered the entire land.
  • Even the magicians accepted it as God’s work, but Pharaoh still refused to let the Israelites go.

4. Plague of flies (Exodus 8:20 – 32)

  • The Lord warned Pharaoh through Moses that he would send swarms of flies to the Egyptian houses.  But the Israelites houses would be spared.
  • When this happened, Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron and promised to let them to go and worship so that the flies would go away.
  • Moses prayed and the flies went away.  However, Pharaoh changed his mind and again refused to let the Israelites go.

5. Death of livestock (Exodus 9:1 – 7)

  • God sent a plague that killed all the Egyptian animals. Their cows, donkeys, camels, sheep, goats and horses were all killed.
  • The Israelites were not affected.  Still Pharaoh refused to release them.

6. Plague of boils (Exodus 9:8 – 12)

  • Moses threw ashes into air as God had instructed.
  • This produced boils which became open sores on the skin of the Egyptians.
  • Unmoved by the suffering of his people, Pharaoh would still not let the Israelites go.

7. Plague of hail (Exodus 9:13 – 35)

  • Moses raised his stick and there was a hailstorm with lightning and thunder.  The people, animals and plants that were struck were killed and destroyed.
  • Pharaoh promised to let the Israelites go but as soon as Moses had prayed and all the hail and thunder stopped.  Pharaoh changed his mind yet again.  He did not let the Israelites go.

8. Plague of Locusts (Exodus 10:1 – 20)

  • Locusts covered the whole land and ate all the crops in the fields.
  • The locusts ate all that had not been destroyed by the hail.
  • Pharaoh once more pleaded for the plague to be lifted.
  • As soon as locusts were out of Egypt, Pharaoh changed his mind.  He still would not let the Israelites out of Egypt.

9. Plague of darkness (Exodus 10:21 – 29)

  • God instructed Moses to stretch out his hand to heaven.
  • There was total darkness in Egypt for 3 days.  The Israelites had light where they were living.
  • Pharaoh remained unmoved and would still not let the Israelites go out of Egypt.

10. Death of first-born sons (Exodus 12:1 – 31)

  • The last plague is the death of the Egyptians male first born.
  • The Lord would kill all the first born sons and first male animals of the Egyptians at midnight.
  • The Israelite males would be spared.

Attributes of God learnt from the ten plagues

  1. God empowers the people he sends to perform miracles and do his work.  He gave Moses the rod with which to work and cause the plagues.
    1. God is almighty/all powerful/omnipotent and no other forces or power can challenge him.  The magicians could not match his powers and accepted that God’s powers are great (Exodus 8:18 – 19).
    1. God is determined to fulfill his plans/to save his people no matter how hard the task may appear to the human eye.  He does not give up on his people.  Exodus 8:22, 9:6, 10:23.
    1. God gives everyone a chance to repent.  He forgives the repentant.  Each time Pharaoh promised to release the Israelites, God relieved the Egyptians from the plagues.
    1. God is God of justice/ he punishes the wrong doer and protects the oppressed.  He afflicted the Egyptians who had enslaved his people.  He spared the Israelites.
    1. God fulfill his promises/ He is faithful.  The Israelites finally left Egypt as God had promised Exodus 3:7 – 10, Genesis 15:13 – 14, 26:3 – 4.
    1. God expects total obedience and faith from the people he sends.
    1. God is a loving/ caring God.  He sees the plight and suffering of his people and works to release them from their suffering.
    1. More powerful that the Egyptian gods.
    1. God was aware of the problems of the Israelites.
    1. Determined to save his people.
    1. God was working through Moses. This strengthened faith of the Israelites on Moses their liberator

THE PASSOVER

Exodus 12:1 – 31

Passover is derived from Hebrew word Pasach meaning “to pass” with the aim of sparing or protecting.

Preparations for the Passover

God instructed Moses to prepare the Israelites for the tenth plague.

Moses called all the elders of Israel and gave them the following instructions.

  1. On the tenth day of that month each man had to choose either a lamb or a young goat for his household.  If his family was too small to eat a whole animal, then he and his next-door neighbor were to share the animal.
  2. The animal chosen was to be a male, one year old and without blemish.
  3. Using a young animal signified the innocence of the sacrifice while an animal without blemish signified purity of the sacrifice.
  4. The animal chosen was to be killed on the eve of the 14th day of that month/eve of the night of the Exodus.
  5. The blood of the animal was to be smeared on the door posts and lintel of Israelites’ houses.
  6. The blood was to act as a sign of distinguishing the Israelites houses from those of the Egyptians so that the angel of death would spare them when he killed the first-born sons of the Egyptians.
  7. The lamb/animal for sacrifice was to be roasted whole i.e. with its head, legs and inner parts.
  8. Roasting was the quickest method of cooking since the Israelites were in a hurry.
  9. The meat was to be eaten that night with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
  10. The bitter herbs signified the bitter experience of slavery in Egypt.
  11. Everything was to be eaten and whatever remained was to be burnt.
  12. They were to eat the sacrificial meat after they had dressed up and packed their luggage (Vs 9 – 11)
  13. The Israelite women were to ask for Jewellery, Silver and clothing from the Egyptian women on the eve of their departure.
  14. These items were to act as compensation for the free labour the Israelites had given Egypt.
  15. Everyone was to remain indoors until morning in order to be protected from the angel of death.
  16. The Passover was to be to be commemorated annually and its significance taught to the coming generation. 

Note

  • On that night the Angel of death “passed over” the houses of the Israelites and killed the entire male first born of the Egyptians, including Pharaoh’s son.
  • There was great wailing in Egypt.
  • Pharaoh summoned Moses and released the Israelites.
  • The Israelites left Egypt for the Promised Land through the wilderness/Exodus.

Attributes of God shown in the Jewish Passover

  1. God is caring i.e. preserved the life of the Israelites.
    1. God loves.
    1. God is powerful i.e. took care of nature.
    1. God is provider of life i.e. killed the Egyptians.
    1. God is the creator and controller of human life.
    1. God is universal e.g. controlled lives of the Egyptians and Israelites.
    1. God is omnipresent i.e. everywhere including to the Israelite and the Egyptians.
    1. God is faithful to his promises.
    1. He punishes the disobedient.

 

THE EXODUS

Introduction

  • An Exodus is a mass movement of people from one place to another
  • The Israelites hurriedly left Egypt.
  • They carried with them unleavened bread.
  • The women took away the jewellery and clothing they had borrowed from the Egyptians as compensation for years of slavery, (had been slaves for 430 years)
  • The journey of the Israelites through the harsh wilderness, fighting hostile local people, was a difficult one.
  • Whenever they forgot the mighty deeds God had done for them God gave them a solution to their problems and restored their faith in him.
  • Moses served as mediator between them and God.
  • They were directed by God in the wilderness by a pillar of cloud during the day and a pillar of fire during the night.  (Exodus 13:20 – 22, 14:19 – 20).

a). Crossing the red sea.  (Exodus 14:5 – 31)

  • Immediately the Israelites left Egypt Pharaoh and his people regretted letting them go.
  • He pursued them with intension to bring them back.
  • The Israelites had camped by the sea.
  • God instructed Moses to lift his rod above the waters of the Red Sea to divide them.
  • The waters separated into walls.
  • The Israelites crossed the sea on the dry ground between the two walls.
  • When the Israelites had crossed over the other side, Moses stretched out his hand over the water and brought the walls back.
  • The Egyptians who were still in the middle drowned and the Israelites sailed.
  • The Israelites saw God’s mighty work in saving them.

b). Provision of water (Exodus 15:22 – 27, 17:1 – 6)

  • After the Israelites had travelled in the desert for 3 days without water, they were thirsty.
  • The water they found was bitter and could not drink.
  • Called the place “Marah” meaning “bitter”.
  • The Israelites started murmuring in complain.
  • God instructed Moses to throw a splinter of wood into the water and it became sweet.
  • At Elim there were 12 springs of water.
  • God provided more water when they had almost reached Mt. Sinai.
  • He instructed Moses to strike a rock and water came out of it for people to drink (Ex. 17:1 – 7).

c). Provision of manna and quails (Exodus 16:1 – 35)

  • As the Israelites were travelling through the desert, they ran out of food.
  • They were hungry and again complained to Moses.
  • Their complaints displeased the Lord, though he had saved them many times they still did not trust him to provide for them.
  • He nevertheless promised to provide for them with food whether they obeyed him or not.
  • The next morning God provided them with manna which they collected and ate.
  • In the evening, he provided them with quails.
  • The provision of manna and quails lasted for 40 years.
  • On the sixth day of each week, he gave them two portions; one for the sixth day and the other for the seventh or Sabbath day.
  • They were supposed to stay indoors on the Sabbath day to worship and remember God.

d). Defeat of the Amalekites (exodus 17:8 – 16)

  • Amalekites were desert nomads who attacked the Israelites in the wilderness.
  • When the Amalekite army came against Israel, Moses ordered Joshua to gather men among them to go and fight them.
  • During the battle, Moses held up his rod.
  • Each time he raised his hands, the Amalekites were defeated.  When he brought down, the Israelites would be defeated.
  • Aaron and Hur saw this; they decided to support his hands until the Amalekites were defeated.  God promised to destroy the Amalekites forever.

Summary of the ways in which God took care of the Israelites during the Exodus

  • He guided the Israelites by a pillar of cloud during the day.
  • He provided a pillar of fire to guide them during the night.
  • God sent an angel who engulfed the Egyptian soldiers in darkness to delay their attack on the Israelites.
  • He gave them priests to be intermediaries between them and God.
  • God split the waters of the Red Sea to create a dry path for the Israelites to pass.
  • He punished the Egyptian soldiers who were pursuing the Israelites by drowning them in the Red Sea.
  • God changed bitter water into sweet waters for the Israelites to drink at Marah.
  • God provided Manna and quails as food for the Israelites when they were hungry.Healingthose who were bitten by snakes.
  • God assisted the Israelites to defeat the Amalekites
  • He provided them with strong leaders like Moses.
  • God gave them the 10 commandments to guide them on their relationship with him and one another.

Problems Moses faced as he led the Israelites during the Exodus

  • Lack of water for the Israelites/ bitter water.
  • Lack of food for the Israelites.
  • Complaining/ grumbling by the Israelites/ refusing to heed to instructions/ stubborn/ stiff necked.
  • Warring tribes in the desert/ Amalekites.
  • Settling disputes among the people.
  • Travelling in hostile/ harsh climatic condition.
  • Lack of faith from the people/ worship of the golden calf/ breaking God’s commandments.
  • Rebellion/opposition from his family.
  • Threat from the Egyptian army.
  • Bites from snakes.

Problems encountered by Christians in their commitment to Christ today

  1. Temptations from the devil/ worldly pleasures.
    1. Weakening of faith in God in times of hardships.
    1. Opposition/ persecution/ oppression because of what they stand for.
    1. False teaching/ heresy/ false prophets who contradict true Christian message.
    1. Division/ quarrels/ disagreements within the church.
    1. Materialism/ greed for wealth/ struggle for power in the church/ in the society.
    1. Challenges from science/ technology which seems to replace the power/ authority of God.
    1. Natural calamities; epidemics, diseases, drought, feminine, floods, earthquakes which make some Christians question the existence of God.
    1. Problems of the destiny of a person after death /Where do people go after death?
    1. The wicked seem to prosper /why do the wicked prosper?
    1. Bad examples set by the church leaders who are supposed to be the shepherds of the people/ mislead people e.g. through misinterpretation of scriptures.
    1. Challenges from other religious/ denominations and the secular society/ traditional culture.
    1. Hypocrisy in the church.
    1. Financial constraints/ lack of resources in meeting their obligations.
    1. Marginalization in the church membership/ activities.

Why the Exodus is important to the Israelites

  1. It marked the end of their suffering/ oppression in Egypt.
  2. It signified they were a special nation chosen by God.
  3. It was a fulfillment of the promises God had made to Abraham.
  4. It proved that God was more powerful than other gods/ supreme.
  5. It showed/ proved to them that Moses was a chosen leader of Israel as a nation.
  6. It made them understand the nature of God.
  7. It taught them that God needed obedience from human beings.
  8. They received the Ten Commandments which guided them in their relationship.

THE MAKING OF THE SINAI COVENANT (EXODUS 19, 24:1 – 8)

(a).Preparation

  • God made a covenant with the Israelites at Mount Sinai in the wilderness.  He brought them here so that he could enter into a personal relationship with the whole community of Abraham’s descendants.        
  • God called Moses to the mountain to ask him if the Israelites were willing to obey. If they would obey Him, God made the following promises to them;
  • He would make them His people.
  • He would make them a kingdom of priests.
  • He would make them aholy nation.

In readiness for the making of the Sinai Covenant, Abraham made the following preparations:

  1. They had to purify themselves i.e. washed the clothes and themselves.
    1. Moses marked a boundary at the foot of the mountain/ a holy boundary to prevent any person or animal going up the mountain.
    1. To be ready on the third day for the Lord come down on the mountain.
    1. Men were advised not to touch a woman/ no sexual relationship.
    1. They were to report to the mountain on hearing the sound of the trumpet.
    1. On the 3rd day Moses took the Israelites to meet their God.
    1. God manifested his presence in the form of:
    1. Thunder.
    1. Lightning.
    1. Earthquake.
    1. Thick cloud that covered the whole mountain.
    1. Fire.
    1. Smoke.           
    1. A loud trumpet blast that made the people tremble.
  2. Moses went up the mountain and was given the Ten Commandments
  3.  Moses came back from the Mt. and told the people about the laws and ordinances which were to guide them as a covenant people.  All the people answered in one voice and said             “All the words which the Lord has spoken we will do,” (Exodus 24:3 – 4)

Steps in the formation/ sealing of the covenant

 (Exodus 24:1 – 8)

  • Moses told the people the 10 commandments.  They all agreed to obey.
  • Moses wrote down God’s laws and commands.
  • The next day/morning Moses built an altar and put twelve stores/pillars around it; the 12 stones symbolizes the twelve tribes of Israel.
  • Young men sacrificed bulls/ oxen to offer burnt offerings and peace offerings.
  • Moses collected the blood into two basins.
  • He poured half of the blood into the altar.  This was a sign that God was involved in the covenant formation.
  • He read the Ten Commandments book of the covenant to the people to make sure that they understood.  The people agreed to obey.
  • He sprinkled/threw the remaining blood upon the people.  This showed people’s involvement in the covenant formula.
  • The use of the blood showed the seriousness of the covenant.  Whoever broke this covenant meant loss of his life.
  • The use of live animals showed that God is the life giver.

 

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (EXODUS 20:1 – 17)

  • The main laws which God gave to Moses are known as the Ten Commandments/ Decalogue.
  • It is an absolute law i.e. unconditional whereby everything had to be followed without question.
  • The Ten Commandments were divided into two major parts.
  • Duties towards God (Ex 20:3 -11) – the 1st 4 commandments about the relationship      between God and man.
  • Duties towards man (Ex 20:12 – 17) – the last 6 commandments about the relationship   between man and fellow man.

Duties to God

1. “You shall have no other gods before me”.

Application

  • It means that God is only one. 
  • There was need to remind the Israelites that he was the God who brought them out of Egypt and cared for them in the wilderness. 
  • The Israelites were to worship him alone. 
  • Any attempts to consider anything else God is wrong.
  • We have one God who is the creator and sustainer of all things
  • Anything we cherish more than God has become a god.
  • It prohibits against Polytheism i.e. “The Lord is one” Deuteronomy 6:4

2.“You shall not make yourself a graven image”

Application

  • This is prohibition against idolatry because God is invisible. (Ex 19:19, Deut 4:12 – 16)
  • Any representation of God is wrong because it might tempt us to worship it which is disrespect to God.
  • Yahweh was not like the Egyptians or Canaanite gods which were depicted in images.

3.“You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in Vain”

Application

  • It prohibits against taking the name of the Lord in vain/swearing.
  • This commandment forbids the use of God’s name in a careless manner without regard to his holiness.
  • One should not swear in God’s name.
  • In Mathew 5:33 – 37 Jesus stresses that Christians should be honest, sincere and always speak the truth.
  • We need then to respect God’s name and the greatness of his name.

4.“Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy”

Application

The Sabbath Day was instituted by God at creation God rested on this day after creation thus we should not work or involve ourselves in any work.

  • It is time to rest/ relax and reflect on what God has done.
  • People are expected to honour it by worshipping God.
  • Reminder of God’s sacrifice.

Significance of the Sabbath to the Jews

  1. They remembered the day God rested after his creation.
  2. Day for worship/ thanksgiving/ prayer.
  3. It is in obedience to one of the commandments.
  4. Day for rest/ leisure.
  5. Holy day dedicated to God.
  6. Shows that man has his origin in God and is therefore responsible to God.

Duties towards man

5.“Honour your father and mother that your days may be long”

Application

God’s gift of life is passed on through our parents as they take care and bring up children.  God takes care of us through our parents.

  • Dishonor to parents leads to disgrace.
  • The family is the foundation of the society.
  • Good respect to our parents leads to right conduct.
  • Obedience to parents leads to long life and prosperity in the land.
  • Parents deserve honour; respect and children should help their parents.

6.“You shall not kill”

Application

It is God alone who gives life and it should be Him alone to take it.  The life of a person is sacred.  Christians are called upon to preserve, respect and protect life.

7. “You shall not commit adultery”.

  • It is wrong to have sexual intercourse with somebody else’s wife or husband.  Such an act sows discord in the community.
  • This command safeguards marriage and family.
  • Purity is demanded of Christians both in their outward life, thoughts and desires.

8. “You shall not steal”

Application

  • Affirms that God is the one who provides us with all that is required to maintain life.
  • Stealing indicates lack of trust in God’ providence.
  • This command prohibits theft.
  • It is protection against property.

9. “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor”

Application

  • False accusations destroy respect and love among God’s people.
  • Christians should show love, honesty, faithfulness and truthfulness.
  • The need for justice in courts.

10. “You shall not covet your neighbor’s property”.

Application

  • Prohibition against covetousness.  Desire for that which belongs to another Num 11:11.
  • This commandment condemns greed of any nature.
  • Greed is motivated by selfishness and hence leads to sin.

THE BREAKING OF THE SINAI COVENANT

  (EX 32:1 – 35

  • Moses went up the mountain to God so as to be instructed on how to lead the Israelites on their last part of the journey to the Promised Land.
  • Moses overstayed up the mountain until some Israelites became impatient and restless.
  • -The multitude started murmuring against the God of Moses/ Yahweh and desired to go back to Egypt.
  • They asked Aaron to make for them a physical god to worship.
  • Aaron made an idol god in form of a calf.  He used the ornaments they had brought from Egypt.
  • The idol represented power and strength.
  • Their worship was accompanied by singing, dancing, drinking, eating and indulged in revelry/sex around the calf.
  • This was blasphemy before God/idolatry.
  • Meanwhile God told Moses to go down for the people had sinned and rejected him.
  • -Moses was annoyed and dropped the tablets on which the laws were written they broke   into pieces.
  • He ground the bull-calf and mixed with water and forced the people to drink.
  • Moses called the faithful followers of Yahweh.  Only the Levites came forward.
  • Moses ordered the faithful people to kill the sinners.
  • Moses returned to God and asked for forgiveness on behalf of the people.
  • God promised to rub the names of the sinners from the book of heaven.
  • God told Moses to continue leading the people.

Why did the Israelites demand for an Idol/possible reasons for breaking the Covenant?

  • Moses overstayed up the mountain.
  • -They needed another leader because they did not know what had happened to Moses.
  • They lacked self-control/ were impatient.
  • They lacked faith in God/ unfaithful.
  • They did not understand the nature of their God e.g. powerful God.
  • It is possible that they were misled by foreigners who joined them on their way to Canaan.
  • Aaron was a weak leader and accepted to make the golden bull-calf.
  • They had been exposed to idolatry in Egypt.
  • The availability of raw materials e.g. Jewellery they had brought from Egypt.

Effects of worshipping the Idol/Bull

  1. God was annoyed with the Israelites and wanted to destroy/consume them and start raising a new generation through Moses.
  1. Moses pleaded with God to forgive them and God withdrew his wrath/ God forgave them.
  2. Moses was annoyed when he found the Israelites worshipping the idol and he threw down the stone tablets breaking them.
  3. Moses burnt the Golden Bull-calf into ashes mixed with water and ordered the Israelites to drink.
  4. God forgave those who repented after worshipping the Golden calf.
  5.  Moses separated those who repented; the Levites included, and ordered the unrepentant group to be killed.
  6. The Lord sent a plague upon the people because they had worshipped the idol.

 

THE RENEWAL OF THE SINAI COVENANT

 EX 34:1 -35

  • God forgave the people and Moses.
  • The Ten Commandments were re-written on two stone tablets that God had asked Moses to cut.
  • Moses went up the mountain with the two stone tablets alone and no man or animal was allowed to be seen around the mountain.
  • God declared that he could make a covenant with the Israelites.
  • He gave Moses the Ten Commandments the second time.
  • God revealed his nature to Moses as:           
  • Merciful/compassionate God.
  • Gracious God.
  • Slow anger
  • Abounding in love
  • Faithful to his promise
  • Forgiving wickedness, Rebellion and sin.
  • Just and jealous/punishes sin
  • He promised to take the Israelites to the Promised Land and protect them against the Canaanites.
  • The Israelites were given conditions to fulfill after the renewal these are:
    • Obey what God commands them.
  1. Not to worship any other gods.
  2. Not to make any cast idols.
  3. To keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
  4. To rest on the seventh day.
  5. To dedicate all their first born children and that of the flock to God.
  6. To offer to God the first fruit of their harvest.
  7. Not to enter into any covenant relationship with the inhabitant of Canaan e.g. not to intermarry with foreigners.   
  8. To destroy the worshipping place of idols.
  9. Not to make molten gods to worship.
  10. Three times in a year the male folk were to appear before God.
  11. Not to offer the blood of His sacrifice with leaven.
  12.  Not to boil a kid in his mother’s milk.

Giving of more promises by God

God then gave them the following promises if they obeyed Him;

  • God would bless them and make them more prosperous.
  • God would preserve them as a chosen nation.
  • God would do great and awesome things among his people.
  • God would help them settle the Promised Land by driving out the inhabitants/their enemies e.g. Canaanite, perizites etc.

THE WORSHIP OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE WILDERNESS

(EX 20:22 – 26, 23:14 – 20)

  • Worship refers to reverence paid to God/ respect given to God in recognition of Him as         the creator and controller of the universe and the strong feeling of love for God.
  • The Israelites must have known God well e.g. they knew him as provider, protector, God of justice, the mighty and all powerful God.
  • All these qualities of God must have made them respect him and love him deeply.
  • During their period in the wilderness, the Israelites worshipped God as individual and as a community. This occurred at specific places.
  • All worship involved:

A. Sacrifices and offerings

  • Animals were used in sacrifices.
  • In an offering agricultural produce was used.

Sacrifices included:

1. burnt offerings/holocaust

  • The sacrificial animal was completely burnt i.e. entirely removed from human possession and given to God.
  • It could be given by an individual or by the community.

2. Atonement/sin offering

  • Offered when one had sinned either against God or against his fellow man and wanted his sins to be forgiven.
  • The one who had sinned brought an animal before God and it was offered as a sacrifice.
  • The animal died on behalf of the person who sinned.

3. Peace offering/ communion sacrifice/ fellowship offering

  • Part of the meat of the sacrificial animal was eaten by the people and other parts             which consisted of fat and blood was burnt on the altar for God.

4. Gift offering

  • The best animal or grain that God had blessed the concerned party was chosen and offered to God as a thanksgiving.

5. Meal offering/ drink offering

  • It involved both vegetable and animal offerings.
  • Meat offering could be offered together with fresh agricultural produce.

6. Incense offering

  • Incense is a substance composed of sweet smelling herbs.
  • It was burnt before God and it was a sign of God’s holiness and his acceptance of the sacrifices.

B. Festivals

A festival is a celebration commemorating a past event.

There were a number of festivals in the Israelite community. These included:

1. The Passover/Feast of unleavened bread.

  • This feast was held annually at the beginning of each year/ once a year.
  • Unleavened bread would be eaten for 7 days of the first month in every New Year.
  • The feast was a commemoration of the Israelite liberation from Egypt.

2. The feast of weeks/ Pentecost.

  • This feast originally marked the end of the wheat harvest.
  • Later it was conducted 50 days from the Sabbath following the Passover hence name Pentecost.

3. The Feast of Tabernacles.

This feast marked the end of agricultural year.

  • It took place in autumn when the fruits had been safely gathered/ harvested.

C. Altars

Altars marked an earthly meeting place between God and the people.

  • The Israelites built an altar in places where they received a Theophany/ God revelation.
  • e.g. Abraham built two altars, one at Shechem and another one at Bethel when God revealed to him that he would give him the land of Canaan
  • The practice of building altars continued to the time the Israelites settled in Canaan Ex 20:24 – 25.

NB: Altars were also places of sacrifice.

D. Prayer and Songs

People communicated to God through prayer and song.  This was mostly used by priests and their leaders e.g. Moses and Joshua.

E. Holy day of worship

The Israelites set a day of worship.  Every week they worked for six days and on the seventh day they rested and worshipped the Lord/ Sabbath rest.

F. The Tent of Meeting (EX 26)

  • It was a portable structure in which the Israelites worshipped God.
  • The outer court contained the altar for incense, the golden stick and the bread of the presence table.
  • The inner court was known as the most Holy place because it contained the Ark of the Covenant.
  • -The Ark of the Covenant was covered with pure gold and the inside contained the two      stone tablets in which the Ten Commandments were written.
  • It was taken care of by the Levites and the priest from the time of Moses.
  • The Terbanacle symbolized the presence of God among his people.
  • Priests would go inside the Terbanacle to offer prayers and sacrifices to God on behalf of the people.

Elements of the Jewish worship found in the Christian worship today

There are a number of elements of Israelite worship which have been carried over from the time of the Exodus to Judaism the early church and to the present time.  These elements include:

  1. 1.The Passover feast which found its origin from the Passover which marked the liberation of the Israelites from Egypt.  This is referred to as the Lord’s Supper in the N. T and    Christian worship.
  2. Use of prayer and songs in worship.
  3. Observing the Lord’s Day / Sabbath by modern Christians.
  4. Offerings are also given in form of money, goods and services tithes.
  5. Altars.  Most Christian churches have altars also called sanctuary.

NB:The worship of God by the Israelites was more similar to that one of the Traditional African worship.

6.   Observing the Ten Commandments.

7.  Burning of incense e.g. catholic church.

8.  Spiritual leaders e.g. pastors, priests.

9.  Dedication of children to God.

Summary of the ways Israelites worshipped God in the wilderness

  1. Through offerings, incense, grain gift.
  2. Through sacrifices/ Holocaust, atonement.
  3. Through festivals/ feasts e.g. Passover, feast of weeks, Terbanacle.
  4. Had the Tabernacle/ the tent of meeting.
  5. Use of prayers; for thanksgiving and asking for God’s protection.
  6. Use of songs and dances.
  7. Built altars to signify the presence of Yahweh/ approached the altars with respect/ earthly meeting place where they had Theophany.
  8. Male folk presented themselves to God three times a year.
  9. Observed the Ten Commandments/ had laws.
  10. Assembled at the foot of Mt. Sinai where they received the Ten Commandments.
  11. Burnt incense to the Lord/ Yahweh.
  12. Observed the Sabbath as a day of worship by keeping it Holy and dedicating to God.
  13. Paid tithes for the upkeep of the Tabernacle.
  14. Consecrated the Tent of meeting.
  15. Levite priests led the Israelites in worship/ Religious leaders e.g. Aaron, Moses, Levitical Priests.
  16. Made the Ark of the Covenant and carried it whenever they went which symbolized God’s presence.
  17. The dedication of the first born male children to God in memory of the Passover in Egypt.

How Christians show respect to God

  1. They set aside a day of worship.
  2. Set aside holy places of worship.
  3. They do not mention God’s name in vain.
  4. They pray to him asking for forgiveness/ confessing to Him.
  5. Live exemplary lives/ role models.
  6. Giving offering/ tithes.
  7. Praise Him for His wonders.
  8. Taking care of the environment.
  9. Looking after the needy.
  10. Preaching/ spreading His word.

 

ISRAELITES NEW UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE OF GOD

Through the teachings of Moses and their personal experience, the Israelites learnt the following about the nature of God: 

  1. He is the God of their forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
    1. God is more powerful than the other god’s e.g. he led them across the Red sea.
    1. He fulfils his promises as evidenced by their release from Egypt.
    1. God is holy as seen from the restriction from contact with the Holy Mountain.
    1. God uses his chosen people to carry out his mission e.g. Israel.
    1. God is the provider as seen in his provision of food and water in the wilderness.
    1. He is a moral God as he gave the Ten Commandments to the Israelites to guide their behavior/ God is a jealous God.
    1. God is a personal God who initiates a covenant relationship with individuals for e.g. the Sinai covenant.
    1. He is the only God/Yahweh was the true God.
    1. God is just as he punished idol worshippers.
    1. God is transcendent and beyond human understanding as seen in the revelation at Mt.      Sinai.      
    1. God demands total obedience from his people as expressed in his instruction during the making and the renewal of covenant.      
    1. God is awesome as shown in people’s fear of him as seen on Mt. Sinai.
    1. God is omnipresent.  He moved with them and was present in the pillar of cloud and fire.
    1. God is a jealous God as expressed in the Ten Commandments.   
    1. God forgives sinners.


Revision questions

1.  1992 Q 42

         Outline the qualities of God learnt by the Israelites during the making of the Sinai Covenant.

2.  1993 Q 41

        Give ways in which God demonstrated His mercy to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai.

3.  1994 Q 21

        Outline the stages followed in the making of the Sinai Covenant.

4.  1995 Q 1( pp 2)

         Describe the preparation that Moses asked the Israelites to make in readiness for the exodus in Egypt.

5.  1996 Q 3

        State five ways in which the Israelites worshiped god in the wilderness during the exodus                                                                                                 (5marks)

6.  1997 Q 2

         List the qualities of Moses shown during his call at Mount Sinai                   (5marks)

7.  1998 Q 3

         State five attributes of God as shown in the Jewish Passover                         (5 marks)

8.   1999 Q 1

        Identify five lessons that Christians learn about the call of Moses                  (5 marks)

9.   2000 Q 2

         State five ways in which God revealed himself to the Israelites on Mount Sinai (5 marks)                                                                                                                        

10.   2001 Q 2

         State five characteristics of God revealed to Moses during the renewal of the Sinai Covenant.                                (5marks)                                                                    

11.   2002 Q 2

          List five values which a Christian can learn from the call of Moses              (5marks)

12.  2002 Q 2a (pp 2)

          a) Outline the conditions given by God to the Israelites during the renewal of the Sinai covenant laws.               (10marks)                                                      

13.  2003 Q 2

           State five ways in which God’s power is demonstrated in the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt to the Promised Land

14.     2004 Q 1

           Give five reasons why Moses was not willing to go back to Egypt after his call.                                                                                                                                        (5marks)

15.     2004 Q 4

           Identify five commandments given to the Israelites that teach on how to relate to one another.                                                                                                           (5marks)

16.    2006 Q 2b.

          (b)What problems did Moses face as he led the Israelites during the exodus?

                                                                                                                                    (10 marks)

17.    2008 Q 2

         (a) Outline the activities carried out by Israelites on the night of the Passover.         (5 marks)

        (b) Give five reasons why the Exodus was important to the Israelites.            (10marks)

         (c) How do Christians show their respect to God?         (5marks)

18.    2010 Q 2

          (a)     State four ways in which God demonstrated His concern for the Israelites during the Exodus           (8 marks)                                                                             

         (b)       How did the Israelites worship God when they were in the wilderness?                                    (5 marks)

19.    2011 Q 2

     a)  Describe how God prepared the Israelites for the making of the covenant at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19)         (8 marks)                                                              

     b)   Give four reasons that made the Israelites to break the covenant while at Mt. Sinai. ( Exodus 32:1-35)           (4 marks)

    c)   What do Christians learn about the nature of God from the Exodus?            (8 marks)

Answers

1992 Q42

  • God is holy.
  • God is powerful/ Almighty.
  • God demands obedience/ God is to be obeyed.
  • God choose / elects people to work for Him/ to be His spoke s men God work through chosen people.
  • God is faithful to his promise/He is God for the covenant.
  • God controls the earth/He is in the charge of the creation.
  • Gods speaks to his people/ communicates with his people.
  • God reveals Himself through nature e.g. clouds, thunder, smoke etc.
  • God is a just/judge.
  • God is awesome/ should be feared.
  • God is imminent /God is everywhere.
  • God is transcendent/God is beyond human knowledge
  • God is worthy of worship/should be worshiped in holiness/he is a true God
  • He is a God of freedom/ liberates
  • God is caring/moving/compassionate/merciful

1993 Q41

  • God appeared to the Israelites to reassure them that they were not alone, He was present among them.
  • He reminded them that he was the God who brought them out of Egypt.
  • God gave them the Ten Commandments to guide them in their relationship with Him and with one another.
  • He entered a covenant relationship with them, in which he promised that they would be his special people and he would be their God.
  • He forgives those who repent after worshipping the golden calf.
  • After Moses broke the tablets of law, God replaced them with new ones.
  • He promised to be with you always, to preserve them and to make them prosperous (Ex. 32:34)
  • After the Israelites broke the covenant by worshipping the golden calf, he renewed the covenant with them.
  • God continued to provide for their needs.

1994 Q21

  • An altar was built at the foot of Mount Sinai supported with twelve pillars to represent the tribes of Israel.
  • Young men sacrificed some oxen.
  • Moses took half of the blood of the animals and put it in basins.
  • Half of the blood was thrown to the altar.
  • Moses read the book of the covenant to the Israelites.
  • The people made a promise that they would obey God.
  • Moses took the blood in the bowls and threw it on the people.
  • Moses said, “this is the blood of the covenant which

1996 Q3

  • They celebrated the three yearly feasts to honour and thank God- the Passover Pentecost and Tabernacle.
  • Three times a year all the men folk presumed themselves before  God
  • They built an altar of earth for God
  • On the alter they sacrificed the holocaust and communion sacrifices from their flocks and heads
  • They hallowed the altar of God/ kept  it holy
  • Approached God’s altar with respect/ honour/ reverence
  • They observed the ten commandment to guide them in their day to day living
  • They assembled  at the foot of Mount Sinai and God gave them the Ten commandments
  • They made tabernacle (tent of meeting) which symbolized God’s presence among them.
  • They gave offerings of various articles to God e.g. gold, bronze, silver and oil
  • They burnt incense to the Lord
  •  They observed the Sabbath as a day of worship
  • They prayed to God/ some praised / danced
  • They held the covenant ceremony at mount Sinai
  • They paid a tithe for upkeep of the  tabernacle
  • They consecrated the tent of meeting                                    (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1997 Q2

  • Care/ cautiousness
  • Inquisitiveness
  • Respect/ cautiousness
  • Patience
  • Obedience
  • Wisdom/ intelligence
  • Courage/ Bravery/ fearlessness
  • Faith/ trust
  • Consistence/ reliability
  • Humility

1998 Q3

  • God is merciful
  • God is faithful to His promises/covenant
  • God is omniscient /all knowing
  • God punishes the disobedient/stubborn
  • God saves /rescue those he loves
  • God responds to / answers prayers
  • God is worthy of worship
  • God is omnipresent /always                                       5×1 = 5 marks

1999 Q 1

  • God commissions/appoints people to perform certain tasks/chooses or works through people of his choice.
  • God does not give people impossible tasks
  • God is beyond human understanding/transcendent
  • God responds to the cry of his people when they call upon Him
  • God is almighty/all powerful/Omnipresent and Omniscience/all knowing/Holy/ Pure
  • God punishes the enemies of his people.                               (5marks)

2000 Q2

  • Thunder and lightning.
  • Fire/pillar of fire.
  • Earthquake/the mountain trembled violently.
  • Sound of trumpet that grew louder and louder.
  • He spoke to Moses/through the ten commandments/through a voice
  • Smoke                                                                         5×1-5marks

2001 Q2

  • Compassionate/Merciful/full of pity.
  • Gracious.
  • Slow to anger.
  • Loving/Kind/Intimate/Personal.
  • Faithful/firm/fulfill his promises/Restores.
  • Forgiving.
  • Just/Punisher/fair.
  • Powerful/Omnipotent/almighty.
  • Jealous
  • Holy.                                                                           5×1=5marks.

2002 Q2

  • Humility (action demonstrating the value of humility) Ex 3: 4
  • Courage 3:3
  • Faith / Trust 3: 17
  • Love/ concern/ care/ mercy/ pity 3:710/ security/ needs/ protector
  • Honesty
  • Obedience 4: 18/ follow
  • Reverence/ respect/ honour 3:6
  • Service
  • Holiness Ex 3: 5
  • Inquisitiveness/ keenness/ knowledge
  • Persistence/ patience
  • Justice ( punishing Egyptians)                                   (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

2002 Q2a (PP2)

  • To obey what God commanded them
  • Not  to make  any treaty with those who lived in the land  where they were going
  • To destroy their altars/ smash their sacred stones/ cut down their Asherah
  • Not  to worship any  other god
  • Not to make idols
  • To keep the various feasts e.g. unleavened bread/ feast of weeks/ feast of gathering
  • To rest on the Sabbath day
  • Not to intermarry with the foreigners
  • To dedicate the  male first born of God                                 (10 marks)

2003 Q2

  • Through the  nine plagues in Egypt
  • The Killing of the Egyptians first borns  ( Passover
  • The crossing of the red sea
  • The drowning  of the Egyptians in the Red Sea
  • Provision of food ( manna and quails)
  • Provision of water from the rock
  • The crossing  of river  Jordan
  • Israelites victory over  their enemies
  • The miraculous  healing from the snake bites
  • Empowering Moses to perform miracles
  • The Pillar of Fire/ cloud/ thunder/ earthquake          (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

2004 Q1

  • He had killed an Egyptian
  • The Pharaoh had wanted to kill him/feared for his life/wanted murderer
  • He feared that the Israelites would not believe that god has sent him
  • He was not an eloquent speaker/stammer
  • He feared that the Israelites would not accept him as their leader
  • He lacked identity/confidence/courage/a  nobody
  • He did not have enough knowledge about Yahweh/did not have faith in God.
  • He was already settled in Median and had a family/content with his life.                                                                                                                           5 marks

2004 Q4

  • Be ready to serve God/ people
  • One should be ready to forgive
  • Christians should have faith in God
  • They should endure persecution
  • They should be wise/ knowledgeable
  • They should be ready to witness  for Christ
  • They should be prayerful
  • They should be of good repute/ exemplary
  • They should be ready to condemn evil

2006 Q2 b

  • Lack of water for the Israelites
  • Lack of food for the Israelites
  • Complains/ grumbling by the Israelites/ refuse to listen to Moses
  • Warring tribes in the desert
  • Settling of disputes among the people
  • Traveling in hostile/ harsh climate conditions/ terrain
  • Lack of faith from the people/ worship of the golden calf
  • Rebellion/ opposition from his family
  • Threat from the Egyptian army
  • Bites from snake                                             ( 5 x 2 = 10 marks)

2008 Q2

        (a)           

  • Every man chose a lamb or a young goat for his family.
  • The chosen animal was slaughtered.
  • Blood was put on the two door posts of the houses.
  • The slaughtered animal was to be roasted.
  • The Israelites ate the unleavened bread/bitter herbs with roasted meat.
  • They stayed indoors till morning.
  • They ate while fully dressed for the journey/in a hurry.
  • They burnt all the leftovers of the meal.
  • They collected jewellery/clothing from the Egyptians.   (5 x1=5 marks)

        (b)           

  • It marked the end of their suffering/oppression in Egypt.
  • It signified that they were a special nation/chosen by God.
  • It was fulfillment of the promises God had made to Abraham.
  • It proved that God was more powerful than other gods/supreme.
  • It showed/proved to them that Moses was a chosen leader of God.
  • The Exodus united the people of Israel as a nation.
  • It made them to understand the nature of God.
  • It taught them that God needed obedience from human beings.
  • They received the Ten Commandments which guided them in their relationships.                                                                          (10 marks)

(c)

  • They set aside a day of worship.
  • Set aside holy places of worship.
  • They do not mention God’s name in vain.
  • They pray to him.
  • Live exemplary lives/role model.
  • Giving offering/tithes.
  • Praise him for wonders.
  • Taking care of the environment.
  • Looking after the needy.
  • Preaching/spreading his word.                                   (5×1=5 marks)

2010 Q 2

  • He made a passage from them in the Red Sea.
    • He provided them with manna.
    • He provided them with quails.
    • He provided them with water from the stone/rock/asked Moses to purify the bitter water.
    • He gave the Ten Commandments
    • He defeated their enemies the Egyptians/Amelekites/protect them against change.
    • He provided a cloud to lead them during the day.
    • He provided a pillar of fire to lead them in the darkness.
    • Provided them leaders.

        b)

  • They built alters
    • They offered sacrifices
    • They sang songs/danced
    • They said prayers
    • They held festivals
    • They gave offerings/tithes
    • They constructed/sacred places of worship/tabernacle/tent of meeting
    • They observed the Sabbath day
    • They burnt incense/burnt offerings.

2011 Q2

  • God told Moses to remind the people of Israel of how he had brought them out of Egypt.
  • God told Moses that he wanted to make a special relationship with

         Israel /make them a kingdom of priests.

  • Moses called all the elders/people and told them what God had said.
  • God told Moses that he wanted the Israelites to obey him
  • The Israelites promised to do all that the Lord had said
  • God promised to come down and meet with the people on the third day
  • The people were instructed to consecrate themselves /wash their garments.
  • The people were to abstain from sexual relationships
  • On the third day, there was a thick cloud upon the mountain/ loud blast  / an earth quake.
  • Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God/ they took their stand at the foot of the mountain
  • The Lord came down to the top of the mountain/ called Moses to go  up to Him                                                                           8×1 = 8 marks

        (b)           

  • Moses their leader delayed to come down from the mountain
  • Aaron who had been left in charge of the people was a weak leader
  • The people demanded for a god/ gods they could see/ feel
  • The people were still influenced by the Egyptian way of worship/idolatry
  • Moses teaching/influence had faded /vanished from the peoples
  • The people had lost faith in their invisible God.                                 4×1= 4 marks

        (c)                                  

  • God is caring
  • He communicates
  • He provides
  • He is powerful
  • He guides
  • He protects
  • He commands
  • He is to be obeyed
  • He punishes those who disobey Him
  • He is holy
  • He is faithful
  • He is patient
  • He is merciful
  • He is jealous                                                                        8×1=8 marks


 

LEADERSHIP IN ISRAEL: DAVID AND SOLOMON

Background to Kingship in Israel

  • Refers to the manner in which a community’s way of life is ruled or controlled.
  • When the Israelites settled in Canaan for the first 200 years they were ruled by judges.
  • The first judge was Joshua who took over after Moses died in the wilderness.
  • The period after Joshua’s death was characterized by political and social disorganization and was between the Israelites and their neighbouring nations.
  • To restore order, God raised judges to rule over the people of Israel e.g.
  • Othniel      – Judges 3:9 – 10.
  • Eliud         -Judges 3:15.
  • Shamgar    -Judges 3:31.
  • Deborah    -Judges 4:4.
  • Gideon      – Judges 6:11 – 24, 7:1 – 2.

The Roles of the Judges/ Characteristics of judges

  1. They were charismatic.
    1. Temporary leaders who led the Israelites battles.
    1. Upheld covenant faith.
    1. Acted as God’s spokesmen/women and.
    1. Settled disputes.
    1. They ruled Israel on behalf of God.
    1. Some judges acted as God’s prophets.
    1. They acted as religious leaders and led the Israelites during religious functions.
    1. Acted as the conscience of the nation/kings.
    1. Condemned idolatry and preached the worship of Yahweh.
  • Prophet Samuel was the last judge.  When he grew old, he appointed his two sons as judges, but they failed as leaders.
  • The people of Israel went to Samuel and demanded for a king.

REASONS FOR KINGSHIP IN ISRAEL

 (1SAM 8:1 – 9)

The people requested Samuel to choose for them a king because:

  • Samuel’s sons were bad and evil leaders/failed as judges/perverted justice and therefore the people rejected them.
  • The Israelites wanted to be like their neighbouring nations/other nations who had earthly kings.
  • They needed a leader/warrior king who would lead them to war against their enemies e.g. the Philistines.
  • They wanted a stable hereditary leadership.
  • They wanted a human leader who could be recognized by other nations.
  • A leader to organize them.
  • Wanted a political nation governed by law and order instead of a theocratic government.
  • Samuel had grown too old and needed a replacement.
  • They failed to understand that Yahweh was their unseen King. God alone chooses rulers.

REASONS AGAINST KINGSHIP IN ISRAEL

 1 SAMUEL 8:10 – 20

The following are the reasons why Samuel was unwilling to choose a king;

  • Choosing a king meant rejecting of God as their ruler/king/challenged the kingship of God over Israel.
  • The king would force people into military services.
  • The king would introduce forced labour in Israel.
  • The king would introduce slavery in Israel.
  • The king would grab their land and property.
  • The king would impose heavy taxation to maintain the army
  • The king would demand free food and services.
  • The king would Force people’s daughters into inter-marriage.
  • The king would take their daughters to be perfumers and cooks in his palace.
  • In becoming like other nations, the Israelites would lose their identity as a covenant people.
  • Hereditary kingship would bring oppression and dictatorship in Israel.
  • It was a way of not appreciating/ not being thankful for God’s deliverance from Egypt/ Exodus.
  • If ruled by the king the Israelites would lose their identity as God’s chosen people/people of the covenant.
  • The king would not be God’s choice and thus would not rule according to God’s will/ demands.
  • The king would deviate/divert people’s attention from God and the covenant way of life.
  • They will cry out to God and He will not listen.

KING SAUL’S SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

1SAM 13:1 – 14, 15:7 – 25, 28:3–19

Background to King Saul’s reign

  • When the elders of Israel went to Prophet Samuel and asked him to appoint for them a king, Samuel prayed to God seeking his guidance.
  • God told him to obey the voice of the people.
  • He sent him to a man called Saul, son of Kish from the tribe of Benjamin.
  • Samuel was to anoint him to become the King over Israel.
  • Samuel poured oil on Saul’s head from a flask he had with him. (I Sam 10:1)
  • Therefore Saul became the first King of Israel.
  • Samuel made it clear to the Israelites that they still remained God’s people.
  • An Israelite King would still remain the servant of God.  The king was to rule God’s people according to the covenant way of life.
  • He explained to the people the rights and duties of the king.  He wrote them in a book and laid it before the Lord,(I Sam 12:14 – 15.
  • The initial appointment of Saul as King of Israel was in accordance to God’s will.  He approved of Saul’s leadership in the following ways:
    • Saul was Yahweh’s own choice. (I Sam 9:16; 10:24).
    • Saul received God’s spirit, which gave him power to act as God’s appointee. (ISam 10:10)
    • Through Yahweh’s help, soul fought against all Israel’s enemies everywhere andwon e.g.
    • Fought against the Ammonites (ISam 11:1).
    • Led a successful war against the Philistines, thus saving Israel from their    enemy (ISam 14:47).
    • Defeated the Amalekites (I Sam 15).

However Saul failed and was rejected as King.  He had a number of weaknesses that led to his failure and final rejection by God.

King Saul’s failures/ weaknesses

  1. He became impatient and offered sacrifices to God at Gilgal instead of waiting for Prophet Samuel, I Samuel 13:1 – 14. He assumed priestly duties by offering sacrifices.      
  1. He disobeyed God’s command and failed to carry out the law of total destruction of a conquered enemy/  The Law of herem or the ban(I Sam 15:1 – 23)failing to destroy everything i.e. during the mission against the  Amalekites.
  2. The spirit of God left Saul and was replaced by an evil spirit which tormented him and      made him like a madman. I Sam 16:14.
  3. He was jealous of David for his success as a warrior (I Sam 18:7 – 8, 19:1 – 22)
  4. He massacred the Gibeonites contrary to an Oath taken during the time of Joshua.
  5. Saul committed the sin of necromancy when he consulted a medium after the death of Samuel. I Samuel 28:3 – 25

Lessons learnt from king Saul’s failures.

  1. Christians should be patient and wait for God’s intervention in times of crisis.  Saul lost patience when Prophet Samuel delayed in coming on the appointed day.
    1. Christians should be obedient and faithful in God/patient.
    1. Political leaders should be more accommodating to people who hold different views and ideas from their own. 
    1. Christians should be sincere in the worship of God.  To be sincere means to be truthful or honest aboutour actions.
  2. Leaders should be God fearing so as to succeed in their leadership.

KING DAVID’S IMPORTANCE

Introduction:

He was the second King of Israel.

He was anointed by Samuel after Saul failed.

He is regarded as the most successful King in Israel.

Importance:  Refers to his successes, achievement and qualities.

King David’s achievements as the king of Israel

 I Sam 16:1 – 23, 2 Sam 6:1 – 15

  1. He was chosen by God to be the king of Israel/anointed by God’s prophet Samuel.
    1. David was filled with God’s spirit right from the time of anointing/throughout his reign.
    1. He had outstanding qualities of leadership e.g. he was charismatic, generous, patient, honorable, wise, brave, eloquent in speech, God-fearing.
    1. He knew and obeyed God/He was a man after God’s own heart/faithful/ trusted God throughout his life.
    1. David consulted prophets of God in all undertakings.
    1. David was acclaimed/accepted/chosen as King of Israel by the whole of Israel at Hebron, 2 Sam 5:1 – 5
    1. He courageously fought and defeated his enemies e.g. the Philistines.
    1. He captured the city of Jerusalem from the Jebusites/He made it the political administration capital for the nation and a religious centre.
    1. He chose Jerusalem a neutral city of his nation. 2 Sam 5:6 – 10, 6:1 – 19
    1. He recaptured the Ark of the Covenant.
    1. He united his people through personal efforts.
    1. He extended the boundaries of his kingdom by capturing smaller states.
    1. He established a standing army / he was a good military commander.  He broke the Philistines control over Canaan once and for all and shut them up in coastal plain 2 Sam     5:17 – 25, 21:15 – 22.
    1. He also waged successful wars against Moab, Ammon, Edon, Amalek and Aram/Syria and concluded a treaty with the Phoenician King, and Hiram of Tyre.  David came to be recognized as the ruler of an empire that stretched from Lebanon Mt. to the boarders of Egypt, from Med. Sea to the desert of Arabia.
    1. He established a long lasting dynasty /Davidic which lasted for 400 years.
    1. He was a shrewd/ good administrator /He chose wise elders and counselors to advice him.
    1. He organized religion through the Temple music/ composed Psalms.
    1. He was humble/ repentant.  He was ready to accept the sins he had committed e.g. when he committed adultery with Bathsheba, Uriah’s wife and arranged for the death of her husband, he was later remorseful.  He put on Sackcloth as a sign of repentance after Prophet Nathan rebuked him for the offence (2 Sam 12:1 – 15).
    1. Divided his Kingdom into small administrative districts.
    1. He came up with the idea of building the Temple for God.
    1. God made a covenant with David through Prophet Nathan.
    1. David respected the Prophets of God and always consulted them whenever he wanted to do anything e.g. when he wanted to build the Temple he consulted Prophet Nathan. (2 Sam 7:1)
    1. He was a great diplomat and established good political relations with the neighbouring Kings.
    1. David ruled over Israel, administering Law and justice to all people, (2Sam 8:15).
    1. He insisted on taking census of all Israel 2Sam 24: 1 – 9.  The information collected was for the purpose of recruiting young men into military service and deciding on the policy of taxation.
    1. He made his nation rich by taxing his enemies

David’s weaknesses

However David had some weaknesses e.g.

  1. He committed adultery with Uriah’s wife.
    1. He plotted for Uriah’s murder.
    1. He coveted his neighbor’s wife.
    1. He forced a soldier to meet the wife.
    1. He broke military laws by putting Uriah in the frontline instead of the back.
    1. He married many wives which took a large portion of state money.
    1. Conclusion:  He repented and God forgave him.

The importance of David as an ancestor of Jesus Christ

2Samuel 7:1 – 29, Luke 1:26 – 3)

  • David intended to build a splendid temple for God after he had accomplished building a palace for himself in Jerusalem, 2 Sam 7:1 – 29.
  • He felt it was not fair for the Ark of the Covenant to continue dwelling in a tent while he himself lived in a magnificent palace.
  • He consulted Nathan the Prophet to find out whether it was in order to do so.
  • The Prophet approved the idea.
  • Later that night, Nathan received a revelation that stated that David was not to build a          house/temple for God; (2 Sam 7:5 – 6)

Promises God made to David through Prophet Nathan

 In 2 Sam 7:9 – 16 is a summary of the divine promises made to David by God. These are as follows;

  1. God promised to Keep David and his descendants safe from all enemies.
  2. God would give David’s descendants a place to settle/their own land.
  3. God promised to raise up an heir from the house of David to sit on the throne.
  4. He promised to let David’s son be the one to build a temple for him.  God’s relationship with this king would be like that of a father to his son.
  5. God promised to establish an everlasting kingdom for David and his descendant rule forever.
  6. God promised to make David’s name greater or famous among all other leaders of the earth.
  7. God would protect David’s descendants from oppression and make them live in peace.
  8. God would bury David with ancestors.
  9. God would punish David’s son when he did wrong.
  10. God would always support David’s heirs.
  11. The Messiah would come from David’s lineage.
  12. God would protect David from his enemies.

The immediate fulfillment of these promises was seen in the reign of King Solomon, David’s son and successor.

  • Solomon did build the Temple of God 1Kings 6:1.
  • Solomon’s reign was marked by a period of peace and prosperity since David had subdued all the enemies of Israel.

David as an ancestor of Jesus Christ

  1. Jesus was born in the family of David. 
  2. Joseph was a descendant of David Luke 1:26
  3. Angel Gabriel in his annunciation message to Mary says that Jesus will be like his ancestor David Luke 1:32 – 33.
  4. Zechariah in his Benedictus says that God has raised up a savior descended from the house of David Luke 1:69.
  5. Jesus was born in Bethlehem which was also the birth place of David. Luke 2:4.
  6. The blind man at Jericho hailed Jesus as the son of David and looked to him torestore his sight Luke 18:38.
  7. Jesus was hailed by the crowd as the Messiah descended from David during his triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Math 21:9).
  8. God promised David that he would have an everlasting kingdom and Jesus established the Kingdom which does not have geographical boundaries/an everlasting kingdom.
  9. The early apostles like Peter and Paul made a number of references to Jesus as a descendant of David. Acts 2:29 – 35, 13:23.

Ways in which David demonstrated his faith in God/promoted worship of Yahweh

  1. He accepted to be anointed by Samuel as next King.
  2. He killed a bear and lion barehanded as a shepherd of his father’s flock.
  3. He trusted God and killed Goliath using a stone.
  4. He consulted God in all his undertakings.
  5. He accepted God’s promises made to him through Prophet Nathan.
  6. He brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem making it a religious capital
  7. Though faith in God he conquered all Israelites enemies.
  8. He wanted to build God a house/temple.
  9. He danced before God and made sacrifices to him after bringing the Ark to Jerusalem.
  10. He composed Psalms.
  11. He repented after sinning.
  12. He strongly believed that God had given him the power.
  13. He advised his son Solomon to be confident and obey God’s Laws if he wanted to be a successful King in Israel.
  14. He was humble before God and attributed his successes to God.
  15. He taught the Israelites that Yahweh was their King. 
  16. He fasted and prayed.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD LEADER DRAWN FROM DAVID’S LEADERSHIP

Good leaders should:

  1. Have faith in God.  A leader should be a God fearing man/seek God’s guidance as all authority comes from him.
  2. Have courage/bravery and fearlessness in spite of many dangers:  a leader should be more courageous than his people.
  3. Be just and fair.  All leaders must ensure that there is fair treatment for all in society/was a good administrator/ he never favoured anyone.
  4. David led his armies into battles.  Christian leaders should be in the forefront when their people have problems to be solved.
  5. Humility.  When David sinned he was ready to ask for forgiveness from God.  A leader should accept mistakes and be willing to ask for forgiveness/ repentance.
  6. David consulted the prophets of God in all his undertakings.  A leader needs to             recognize God’s chosen servants, priests; pastors co-operate with them and constantly ask Gods guidance before indulging in any venture. 
  7. Kindness.  David had a forgiving heart towards some of the offenders e.g. spared Saul’s life 1 Sam 24:10. Therefore modern leaders should be willing to accommodate their rivals even forgive their offenders.
  8. David felt that he was ruling for God.  He was just a servant of God not his master. A leader should lead as a servant of God.
  9. A leader should be patriotic to his country and be ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of unity, love and peace.
  10. A leader should be patient in decision making.  David gave his people to decide whether to accept his rule or not. 
  11. Loyalty.  David drew support of his subjects and never imposed his will on them.  Modern leaders should never betray their oath of loyalty they make to serve their subjects faithfully after taking office.
  12. Gratitude.  David always thanked God for any success or favours he received from him (Samuel 7:18 – 29).  Modern leaders should not be boastful over their personal achievements.  It is God who gives such success.
  13. Obedient and humble.He humbled himself before God and his Prophets and obeyed God’s commands/compassionate, loving, kind and merciful.  He was tolerant with King Saul.  He also helped the needy.
  14. Shrewd administrator. He chose wise leaders to help and advise him. Modern leaders should choose wise people to advise them in their administrative duties.

 

KING SOLOMON’S ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES

 I Kings 3-11

Solomon inherited the Kingdom from his father David.

His task was to maintain and control a peaceful territory established by his father.

Solomon prayed to God for divine wisdom in the execution of his duties as a result he made many achievements.

King Solomon’s achievements

  1. He built a Temple for God in Jerusalem as a fulfillment of God’s promises to David.  (I Kings 5, 6)
  2. He collected and composed thousands of proverbs and songs which were used in teaching and worship (3,000 Proverbs 1,005 songs) (Prov. 1:1 – 5)
  3. He established and developed trade links with other countries which led to economic prosperity in Israel/ He was a successful merchant.
  4. Solomon initiated industrial activities and exploited copper deposits in the area of Edom which had been conquered by David.
  5. He developed diplomatic relations with foreign countries by marrying the daughters of         the Kings of those countries e.g. Married the daughters of the Kings of Egypt, Moab, Edom, Tyre and many others I Kings 3:1, 1:1)  He remained at peace with those countries.
  6. He built up a professional army equipped with horse drawn chariots, Had 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horsemen I Kings 10:26.
  7. He had government officials who assisted Solomon in his administrative duties.  (I Kings 4)
  8. He was a great wise man e.g.
  9. He was able to judge difficult cases and settle disputes fairly ( in the story of two women (I Kings 3:16 – 28)
  10. His wisdom is seen in the way he organized trade with other countries.
  11. The queen of Sheba (Ethiopia travelled all the way to test Solomon’s wisdom. (I Kings 10:1 – 9)
  12. Solomon brought the Ark of the Covenant to the Temple of Jerusalem which represented God’s presence among his people (I Kings 8).
  13. He built himself a palace that took 13 years to be completed (1 Kings 7).
  14. Solomon divided the kingdom into administrative districts in order to exploit the resources effectively.
  15. Solomon initiated an ambitious building programme in which he fortified Jerusalem and other cities.

King Solomon’s failures

Although Solomon was a successful King, he had many failures. These include;

  1. He married many foreign wives who brought with them the worship of foreign gods to         Israel.  Ex 34:16.
  2. He allowed his foreign wives to worship their gods in Israel.
  3. He built high places of worship/temples for the gods of his wives. Ex 20:4 – 5.
  4. Solomon worshiped the gods of his wives alongside the God of Israel thus broke the covenant with God.
  5. He imposed heavy taxation on his subjects and his districts in order to raise part of the government revenue.
  6. Solomon overspends and misused the wealth of the Kingdom by building a huge palace.
  7. He overtaxed his subjects to maintain high standard of living in his royal court/ was extravagant.
  8. He introduced forced labour to carry on his building programmes. E.g. palace and temple, therefore breaking the covenant rule of brotherhood.
  9. He gave King Hiram of Tyre an area of Israel’s land to pay off his debts thus treating the nation’s land as his own personal property.
  10. He killed his half brother Adonijah (1Kings 2) because he suspected that Adonijah could be his rival to the throne thus committing murder.
  11. He practiced nepotism by exempting his own people from taxation and forced labour i.e. tribes of Judah and Benjamin exempted from forced labour and payment of taxes.
  12. He hired the skills of pagan craftsmen in the construction of the Temple and his palace.
  13. He made treaties with foreign Nations/neighbouring nations against the covenant requirements.

Lessons Christians learn from King Solomon’s reign

Christians should;

  1. Be sexually pure.
    1. Be Monogamous.  Solomon’s seven hundred wives led him into worshipping their foreign gods.
    1. Be just and fair.
    1. Respect and honour God.
    1. Not misuse national resources.
    1. Put God above everything else.

THE DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

I Kings 12.

The death of Solomon and the Division of the Kingdom

After the death of King Solomon, his son Rehoboam succeeded him.

Not all tribes of Israel accepted him as their King and therefore it split into two.

The Northern 10 tribes formed Israel while the 2 Southern tribes formed Judah.  Judah retained Jerusalem as the capital city.

Factors that led to the division/reasons for the rise of schism in Israel

  1. Solomon practiced idolatry which made God to punish him by splitting the kingdom.
    1. Solomon built high places for idols.
    1. The introduction of forced labour and heavy taxation led to discontentment among the Israelites and this made them rebellious.
    1. Solomon had many foreign wives who brought with them the worship of foreign gods to Israel.
    1. Rehoboam’s failure to heed to the elders wise counsel to rule the Israelites less harshly.
    1. Rehoboam’s acceptance of the foolish advice given by the youth to rule the people more harshly than his father had angered the people.
    1. Long standing feuds in David’s house.
    1. Jeroboam was ready to lead the rebellious groups against Rehoboam.
    1. Solomon’s favor extended towards the Southern tribes making the northern tribes to rebel/Solomon practiced nepotism and tribalism making northern tribes rebel.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TEMPLE IN ISRAEL

The Temple of Jerusalem played important roles in religious, social and economic lives of the Israelites.

  1. It symbolized God’s presence among his people through the Ark of the Covenant which was kept in the Temple.
  2. It was a dwelling place for God.  I Kings 8:12 – 13.
  3. It was a centre/house of worship and prayer for the Jews/ priests offered sacrifices, burnt incense and prayers to God in the Temple.
  4. All the Jewish Religious festivals/feasts such as Passover, Pentecost and New Year were celebrated in the Temple.
  5. The Temple was a symbol of national security because the Jews believed that the Temple would never be destroyed.
  6. Religious rites were performed in the Temple e.g. Purification and dedication rites, naming, circumcision of baby boys and lepers were cleansed in the temple.
  7. It was a place for pilgrimage for the Jews living in Palestine and the Jews of the Diaspora
  8. It was a commercial centre and housed the Jewish treasury where currencies were exchanged and animals for sacrifices sold.
  9. It was a centre for Jewish learning where the teaching of the law was conducted
  10. It was used as a law court where social and religious issues could be solved by the Sanhedrin/council of Jewish religious leader.
  11. 11.It was a symbol of Jewish unity.  It united the Jews as the people of God, since it was         built and maintained by Kings.  It was a royal sanctuary thus providing stability for the monarch.
  12. It was the residence for the religious leaders and the place where priests and prophets Lived, e.g. prophetess Anna, Luke 2:36 – 38.
  13. The Jews believed that the Messiah would appear in the Temple.
  14. The Temple was the only place where sacrifices to God were offered by the priests.
  15. God revealed himself to many in the Temple e.g. Hannah, Isaiah etc.

Revision questions

1.     1997 Q 4

        State five factors which led to the division of the Kingdom of Israel after the death of King Solomon.                     (5marks)                                                        

2.     1997 Q 1(pp 2)

         a)Describe ways in which King David promoted the worship of Yahweh in Israel            (12marks)

3.     1999 Q 2

         Give five activities of King Jeroboam that made the Israelites in the Northern Kingdom turn away from God   (5 marks)

4.       1999 Q 2a (pp 2)

          (a)         Explain how King Solomon turned away from the covenant way of life    (6 marks)

5.       2000 Q 3

           Identify five ways used by the Israelite Kings to bring people back to God (5 marks)

6.        2000 Q 1a (pp 2)

           a)          Give reasons why the Northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed before the Southern kingdom of Judah.           (12 marks)                                             

7.        2001 Q 3

           State five reasons why Samuel was opposed to the idea of having a king in Israel            (5marks)                                                                                            

8.       2001 Q 1a, b (pp 2)

          a)           What were the promises of God to David through Prophet Nathan?  (8marks)  

          b)           State the factors that led to failure of David’ successor                   (7marks)

          c)           What are the factors that prevent political leaders form performing their duties efficiently in Kenya today?                                                    (10marks)

9.        2002 Q 3

          State five duties of Samuel as a prophet of God         (5marks)                                

10.     2003 Q 3

          List five types of leaders whom god gave his power to in the Old Testament. (5marks)

11.     2004 Q 1( pp 2)

          a) Outline the activities in the life of King David that showed he had faith in God.                         (12marks)                                                      

          b) Identify the characteristics of God as portrayed in the life of King David              (7marks)

12.     2005 Q 1 (pp 2)

           a)          Give reasons why the Israelites asked Samuel to appoint a king for them                                         (7marks)                                            

           b)          What were the failures of King Saul? (12marks)                                                     

13.     2005 Q 3

            Give five reasons why the temple in Jerusalem was important to the Israelite (5marks)

14.      2006 Q 3a, b

            (a)       Give reasons why the Israelites demanded for a king  (8 marks)        (b)State the achievements of Solomon as King of Israel  (6 marks)      

15.      2009 Q 3a, b

           (a)State seven functions of the Temple in the Jewish community.                (7marks)

            (b)Identity six ways which show that King Solomon turned away from the covenant way of life    (6 marks)                                                                                  

16.     2011 Q 3

           a) Outline the failures of King Saul          (5 marks)                                     

           b)  Explain the achievements of David as a king of Israel.                                        (7 marks)

           c)  Give four reasons why Christians in Kenya should build churches.          (8 marks)

17.     2012 Q3a P1

               (a) Describe six ways that king David used to promote the worship of God in Israel                (6marks)                                                                                

Answers

  1.  
  2. Foreign wives -Solomon had married many foreign   princesses who bought high places  ( idols) with them the worship of foreign gods to Israel.
  3. Sol. Worship ( idols)  -Solomon not only allowed his foreigners wives to worship their gods but also built high places of worship where his wives worshipped their gods. This displeased God.
  4. Solomon broke the covenant with God by  disobeying his commands not to worship foreign gods. ( 1 kings 11: 9- 10)
  5. Over taxation  -In order to support his harem of wives and court officials, Solomon needed a lot of money and this he got by overtaxing his subjects. This was oppression.
  6. Forced labour -Solomon spent years and a lot of resources  building his own palace and the temple, projects made him introduce forced labour in Israel.
  7. Kingdom divided redness of Jeroboam
  8. The over- taxation and forced labour made the Israelites dissatisfied with Solomon’s rules. The dissatisfaction among the Israelites found a spokesman in Jeroboam.
  9. After Solon’s death his son Rehoboam succeeded him/ rejection of the advice from the old men
  10. Jeroboam led a delegation of Israelites elders to Rehoboam to ask him to rule them less harshly than his father Solomon. The bitterness of the Northern Kingdom led to the rebellion.
  11. Rehoboam rejected the counsel of the elders who advised him to tell the delegation that he would rule them less harshly than Solomon.
    1. The bitterness of the Northern Kingdom led to the rebellion
  12. He listened to the young men who told him to tell the delegation that he
    1. would rule them more harshly than his father cared for him/ Rehoboam listened
    1. The readiness of Jeroboam to lead a rebellion/ encouragement from prophet Elijah to lead the rebellion North
  13. When Rehoboam told the delegation that his rule would be harsher than his father’ they were so angered and the ten northern tribes of Israel rejected him as King and rebelled against him.
  14. The rebellious tribes chose Jeroboam as their king and only the two southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained under the Kingship of Rehoboam. The redness of Jeroboam to lead rebellious tribes/ encouragement of Prophet Elijah to lead rebellion tribe.                                                             (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1997 Q 1

  • David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem. (The Ark of the Covenant in Jerusalem signified the presence of God among his people). Yahweh’s presence was at the centre of Israel ‘s life).
    • He made Jerusalem the Hold City / religious / spiritual capital to which Israelites from over the land came for important religious occasions.
    • He composed psalms which were used in worship by the Israelites / Jews (e.g. reading / singing / reading)
    • He showed respect to the prophets of Yahweh (Nathan/God) listened to their messages/advice/admonitions.
    • When David made mistakes, he repented / asked for Yahweh’s forgiveness/pardon.
    • David humbled himself before Yahweh/ he called himself the servant of
    • Yahweh / completely submitted to His will / obeyed God / was loyal.
    • He advised others to obey God / to keep God’s commandments /
    • Shepherded Israel to true worship of Yahweh.
    • David praised God through song/ dance / music.
    • David Wanted to build a house / temple for God (where the Ark of  the covenant would be kept / Israelites would  meet for worship).
    • David constantly prayed to God / Sought God’s guidance / Glorified
    • God / gave thanks to God.
    • He conquered the enemies of Israel so that they could live in peace / was a sign of God’s presence among them.                                                 6 x 2 =  12marks

1992 Q2

  • Made images/golden calf’s /idols to represent Yahweh
  • Made Dan and Bethel as centre of worship
  • Stopped the Israelites from going to worship in Jerusalem which was against the law.
  • He build other places of idol worship/high places/hilltops/shrines
  • He chooses priests who did not belong to the family of Levi.
  • He instituted religious festivals unlike those found in Judah
  • He himself worshipped idols.                                                            (5 marks)

1999 Q2a (PP2)

  • He married Canaanite wives/foreign wives.
  • He disobeyed God’s command of not worshipping the Canaanite gods.
  • He did not observe the brotherhood law (When he taxed the Israelites heavily for the upkeep of the foreign wives.
  • He disregard the advice of god’s prophets when he built worship places for false gods.
  • By signing trade and marriage agreements with his neighbours, hence relying on human beings other than God/ selling of the cities.
  • He disobeyed the instructions from his father, David that he should relay on God only.
  • He subjected the Israelites to forced labour/oppression/slavery in the construction of the temple/the place.
  • He murdered his half brother (adonija) who he thought would be his rival in power.                                                                                     6 x 1=6marks.

2000 Q3

  • Destroyed the altars of God. (i.eAsherah poles)
  • Set examples to the people by repenting their sins when warned by the prophets of heir wrongdoings  by worshipping
  • Killing the priests of Baal e.g Jehu
  • Restoring temple worship e.g. David/captured the ark/taking the ark to Jerusalem.
  • Removal of the covenant/they led the people in renewing their allegiance to Yawheh and the Sinai covenant e.g. Jehu and Josiah they renewed Jewish festivals.
  • Repaired the temple/they made God’s dwelling place presentable and accorded it its due respect Hezekiah/build a temple e.g. Solomon.
  • Destroyed the bronze serpent that Moses had made during the exodus for the Israelites had began worshipping it they burnt incense to it (Hezekiah of Judah 2 Kings 18:3)
  • They did not form political alliances with neighbouring kings thus demonstrating to the people that God was to be completely trusted.                       (5 x 1= 5 marks)

2001 Q1a, b (PP2)

  • He would be the greatest king/Leader in Israel/ great name.
  • God would protect Israel from oppression/give Israel peace during his rule
  • Protect David from his enemies
  • He would keep the kingdom strong for his sons descendants/the son will be king
  • Bury him with his ancestors
  • David’s house would rule forever/everlasting dynasty
  • David and his descendants would be blessed forever always
  • The Messiah would come from David’s lineage
  • God would punish David’s sons when they did wrong just as a father punishes a son.
  • God would always support him
  • David’s son Solomon would build a temple for God
  • God would give Israel their own land.                       (8 x1=8 marks)
  • They shed innocent blood
  • They were oppressive in their rule (forced labour/heavy taxation/bribery)
  • They married foreign wives
  • They built temples/shrines for idols
  • They were unfaithful/ dishonest
  • They did not tell people who God was
  • They were disobedient to God
  • They did not rule according to the law of Moses
  • They did not listen to the prophets
  • They worshipped both God and idols/syncretism/worshipped idols
  • They sought alliances with neighbouring states instead of relying of God.                                                                                                                                                                             (7 marks)
  • Ridicule from members of the society
  • Inability to live up to the expectations of the electorate/promises made
  • Women leaders are discriminated against/looked down upon
  • Lack of training in leadership skills/poor looked down upon
  • Divisions/conflicts  within/between the parties
  • Lack of adequate forum to meet/address their electorate
  • Insecurity  funds to initiate development projects help their electorate
  • Differing/conflicting ideologies resulting in divisive decisions.
  • Inadequate funds to initiate development projects help their electorate.
  • Personal differences
  • Inadequate infrastructure
  • Cultural/religious barriers/tribal/ethnic/racial corruption    (4 x 2=8)

2004 Q1 (PP2)

  • He challenged Goliath/ killed him using a  stone and sling
  • He accepted to be anointed by Samuel to be King after Saul
  • He repented after he had killed Uriah/ taking Uriah’s wife
  • He consulted God/ prophets before he did anything
  • He bought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem/ and it a religious centre
  • He     wanted    to built a temple for god /assemble building materials from Lebanon
  • He obeyed god’s instructions through prophet Nathan
  • He attributed all his success god /made praises god/composed psalms
  • He accepted god’s punishment for his   sins
  • He  made sacrifices to god
  • He advised his son Solomon to obey God’s laws/ commands in order to succeed as a king
  • He fasted/ prayed/ he called himself a servant of God

(b)

  • God is powerful
  • God is moral / righteous/ good
  • God punishes evil/ sin
  • God is holy
  • God is defender of the defenseless
  • God protects/ saves his people
  • God provides for his people
  • God is faithful
  • God answers prayers
  • God is kind merciful/ forgiving
  • God is  loving/ caring

2005 Q1 (PP2)

  • The sons of Samuel had failed as judges/they were unjust /corrupt.
  • They wanted a king who would lead them into war
  • They wanted a leader who would be recognized by other nations
  • They wanted a political government with national authority.
  • They wanted a human leader whom they could see/had rejected God their unseen King.
  • The sons did not have the leadership qualities of their father.
  • Samuel had imposed his sons as judges.                                            7 x1=marks
  • He performed the duties of a priest/ offered sacrifices.
  • He was not patient to go by God’s timing/lacked faith in God.
  • He has not repentant after his mistakes.
  • He did not listen to the command of God to destroy all the loot from the Amalekites for selfish gains.
  • He cheated Samuel that he wanted to offer the animals as sacrifice to God
  • He listened to the voice of his subjects/army
  • He wanted to kill David.
  • He consulted a medium/witch.          
  • He killed the priest of the Lord.                                             6 x 2=12 marks

2005 Q 3

  • It was a place of worship
  • It signified  the pressure  of God
  • Sacrifices were offered there
  • It united the  Jews
  • It was a business centre/ trade
  • It housed the treasures  of the nation
  • It was an academic centre  for the teachers of the law/ rabbis
  • It was a residence for  priests

2006 Q3a, b

  • Samuel had become old/ unable to rule/ feared  he would dies
  • Samuel appointed his sons as judges/ made the post  hereditary
  • The sons of Samuel were corrupt/ his sons had failed as judges
  • The Israelites wanted to be like others nations
  • They wanted a king who could lead them to war against their enemies
  • They wanted a leader whom they could see/ rejected God as their king
  • They wanted a political government with national authority/ organized system                                                                        

                                                                                                (8 marks)

  • He built the temple for the worship of Yahweh
  • He established trade links with neighboring nations
  • He built many cities in Israel/ infrastructure
  • He organized the central government/ improved tax collection/ established  a strong army to maintain peace
  • He established diplomatic  links with other  countries/ nations
  • He built a magnificent  palace
  • He composed proverbs songs for the worship of Yahweh/  wrote the book of ecclesiastics
  • He settled disputes wisely
  • He installed the ark of the covenant in the temple/ dedicated the temple  of God.

2009 Q 3a, b

  • It was used for worship/prayers         
  • It was the place where the law was taught to children/people.
  • Priest burnt. sacrifices/offered incense in the temple to God                 
  • iv, Purification: rituals were conducted here.                                       
  • It was. a home for priests. Residential for Levites.
  • Dedications:/’presentations of the babies were carried out in the temple,
  • It was the business centre for Jews. Commercial centre.
  • The Jewish council (Sanhedrin) held their session here / a place where cases were heard/’  determined law court.
  • All the Jewish festivals were celebrated here,                                  (7 x l=7marks)

            b)

  • He married foreign wives/ concubines.
  • He allowed worship of foreign gods / idols/, he worshiped foreign gods.
  • He murdered his half brotherAdonijah whom he thought would rival his power
  • He taxed the Israelites heavily for his upkeep.
  • He disobeyed the instructions given to him by his father David to rely on God.
  • He built places of worship for the false gods.
  • He subjected the Israelites to force labor / slavery during the- construction of the temple/hispalace.
  • He signed treaties with his neighbors for protection.
  • He sold land to Hirarn King of Tire.
  • H used more time to build his palace than the temple of God.(6 x 1 = 6marks)

2011 Q3

  • He offered the burnt offerings/instead of waiting for Samuel to do it
  • He lacked patience to wait for Samuel who was to offer burnt offering

to God

  • He disobeyed God’s command to destroy the Amalekites completely

by sparing the life of King Agag.

  • He spared the best of the animals instead of destroying them
  • He lost faith in God
  • He wanted to kill David/ was jealous of David
  • He was deceitful to the servant of God
  • He committed suicide                                                              5×1=5 marks
  • David conquered and defeated the enemies of Israel
  • He expanded the geographical boundaries of Israel
  • He captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites
  • He made Jerusalem a religious centre by bringing the ark of the

covenant there

  • He made peace treaties with his neighbours
  • He composed psalms which are used during worship
  • He united the twelve tribes of Israel under one ruler
  • He made preparations for the constructions of the temple  7×1=7 marks
  • Churches are used for worshiping God
  • They signify God’s presence/ house of God.
  • They are used for meetings/ a place of gathering for members
  • Religious functions take place there
  • They are places where members receive religious instructions/

preaching

  • As a sign of prestige/ recognition/ identification
  • To demonstrate their faith in the existence of God
  • To follow the traditions of the Old Testament teachings on the temple

as a house of God.

  • It can be used as a place of refuge in times of danger/ calamity
  • As a sign of growth                                                                4 x 2 = 8 marks

2012 Q3a P2

  • He brought the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem
  • He made Jerusalem a holy city where Israelites from all over the land came for important   religious occasions. 
  • He composed the Psalms which were used in worship by the Israelites.
  • He showed respect to the prophets of Yahweh/listened to their messages.
  • He wanted to build a temple for God/made preparations for its construction.
  • When he made mistakes, he asked for Yahweh’s forgiveness/repented.
  • He sought for God’s guidance in whatever lie wanted to do.
  • He entered into a covenant with God/instructed others to obey the covenant
  • He built altars/offered sacrifices.                                        (61=6 marks)
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