Causes of Disunity in the Early Church


Learning outcomes:  By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

  1. Explain teaching in selected New Testament texts of the unity of believers.
  • Identify the metaphors used to describe unity of believers.
  • Identify the causes of disunity in the early and modern church


Unity of believers refers to oneness of those who have faith in Jesus Christ.

Learning outcomes:  By the end of this lesson you should be able to: –

  1. Describe activities of early Christians
  1. Describe characteristics of the people of God

iii. Explain the meanings of these symbolic expressions

  • The body of Christ
  • The Vine and the Branches
  • The Church / Assembly of God
  • The Bride

a. Early Christians

The early Christians in Jerusalem demonstrated their unity by.

  • Holding joint prayer sessions
  • Sharing the Lords supper, that is Eucharist.
  • Sharing their possessions with the poor.

The showed oneness and unity as believers. They expressed their oneness using various terms, images, metaphors and symbols. They regarded themselves as the people of God, the church and an Assembly of God. When they celebrated the last supper, eating of bread was a symbol of the body of Christ. They saw themselves as belonging to one tree with the vine and branches. As followers of Christ, the early Church saw itself as the Bride of Christ.

b. Discussion of Symbolic Expressions

i. The people of God

Read 1 PETER 2: 9-10. Peter has outlined the characteristics of the people of God. He says that the people of God are

Believers in God: through faith in Jesus Christ.

The ‘Chosen race’, ‘a royal priesthood’, a holy nation’ ‘a chosen people’

Those who stand out from the rest because they live a holy and righteous life

Form a Holy nation chosen to proclaim the works of God.

Not just the descendants of Abraham but people who follow Jesus Christ and His teachings.

ii. The body of Christ

Read 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, and Ephesians’ 4:1-12.

The Holy Spirit is the one who brings Christians together as one body of Christ to serve the church. Christians are given gifts for the purpose of sharing the body of Christ.

Jesus Christ is the head of the church. And just as the body has many parts, playing different roles, so has the Church. Every member of the church plays a vital role because different members have different spiritual gifts and callings. Some are Apostles, Teachers, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Miracle performers, Administrators and those who show mercy to others and encourage (exhort) others.

All church activities should be directed to the welfare of the church, just as the function of each part of the body is necessary for the well being of the whole body. To have a united body, members should be meek, and patient in order to bear the fruit of the Holy Spirit. For a church to be united, or to be considered as one body, Christians should have faith in God the father, one Lord Jesus Christ, one Holy Spirit and have faith in God through Jesus Christ.

iii. The Vine and the Branches

Read John 15:1-10

The vine represents Jesus. Vine tree was a tree that bore grapes. The vine tree was a symbol of prosperity and peace. Jesus is the vine and the Father is the vinedresser. Christians/ believers are the branches. They are expected to produce good fruits by remaining faithful and united in Christ. Faithful branches bear fruit like good Christians while unfruitful branches are like unfruitful Christians.

Christians should remain united to Christ who is the vine so as to bear fruits. The teachings of Jesus purify the Christians. The dead branches of the Vine trees are cut off and the livings ones are trimmed or pruned. This is done so that the vines may produce high yields. Likewise unfaithful Christians, believers are rebuked and corrected so as to bear high yields.

iv. The Church or Assembly of God. Read Ephesians 5: 21 – 32

Church is a Greek word “““ekklesia””, which means people. People who belong to the Lord, Assembly of God is the coming together of people of diverse social and cultural backgrounds who recognize lordship of Jesus. The church is likened to the relationship between a husband and a wife. Christians (the church) are expected to be united with Christ just as a husband and wife are united in marriage. Just as husbands and wives are expected to love one another, so too, are Christians called upon to express love to one another and to love God.

A husband is the head of a family; Jesus is also the head of the church.

v. The Bride. Read 2 Corinthian 11: 2, and Revelations 21: 1 – 12

In the Old Testament, God calls Israel a bride. In the New Testament, Christians are referred to as “a bride’ in the New Jerusalem’. God or Jesus Christ is the bridegroom. Christians are reminded that the life on earth is a temporary home. Their real home is in heaven, the Holy city of God. Just as a bride is expected to be faithful to her husband, so are Christians expected to be faithful to God by observing the covenant way of life. Deviation from the covenant was portrayed as adultery.

John, who wrote the book of revelations, sees a vision of a new heaven and a new earth in which faithful Christians will be rewarded. Christ will come to take His bride to eternity to live there forever. The relationship between Christians and Jesus/ God is like a marriage. It is a covenant. It is a relationship where the church (bride) is expected to submit to God. Jesus died for the church, a show of His or God’s love. Likewise Christians should be committed in their relationship to God.

SAQ. 1. Discuss in twos who is a bride and what takes place in a wedding.

2. Discuss the significance of the symbols used to express the unity of the believers. These are “The people of God”, “The body of Christ”, “The vine and the branches” “The church or assembly of God” and “The bride”.


The early church experienced some challenges, which led to divisions among the early disciples and Christians.

Learning Outcome:  After reading this lesson,

i Identify causes of disunity in the early church

  1. State causes of disunity in the modern church
  1. Compare the causes of disunity in the early and modern church
  1. Suggest possible solutions to disunity in modern church

a. Causes of Disunity in the Early Church

After Jesus ascended to his Father and left the Holy Spirit to look after his followers, the disciples established congregations or communities to spread the Word of God. As believers of Christ met and prayed together, there were disagreements and divisions brought about by several factors and issues. These were:

Disputes, among early Christians; concern leadership of the Church, Christians wanted different leaders: Paul, Apollo’s, Cephas or Christ. Paul told them that Christ couldn’t be divided (1 Corinthians 1:10 -21).

Sexual immorality was another cause of disunity in the early church. Some Christians were doing or having irresponsible sexual behaviours. These were incest, fornication, and prostitution. Paul condemned such behaviours and told Christians to stop sinning and honor God with their bodies. The body of a Christian is the temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthian 5: 1-13, 6:12 – 20).

Christians settling disputes in civil courts:  Paul advised they ought to talk over issues among themselves and agree to solve problems on their own (1 Corinthians 6).

Dispute over marriage and divorce:  Some Christians were opposed to marriage. Others were encouraging divorce. Paul addressed these issues in 1 Corinthian, chapter 71-16. Paul advised Christians that it was okay to marry or not to marry. But marriage was needed to stop immorality.

Eating of meat offered to idols. Some Christians were eating meat offered to idols while others were against it. Paul advised Christians not to eat anything that will cause their faith to weaken or fail. (1 Corinthians 8 and10: 14 – 20.

There were disputes about dressing during worship. Should women cover their head during worship? Should women shave hair? Should men wear long hair? (1 Corinthian 11:1-16).

Some Christians were overeating and over drinking during the Holy Communion – misuse of the Lord’s Supper, (1 Corinthians 11:17 – 33)

Misuses of spiritual gift especially the gift of speaking in tongues:  Paul taught that all gifts are equal (1 Corinthians 12).

There was a misunderstanding about the resurrection of the body and the dead. Some were saying there is no resurrection. Paul preached that if there is no resurrection then their preaching was in vain as they were witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 15).

b. Causes of disunity among believers and church in Kenya today

Leadership differences:  Some Christians are struggling for power. This has led to formation of splinter groups, divisions and enmity between these groups.

Cultural differences;  Christians are divided by their African cultural beliefs from their backgrounds. This culture is merged with Christianity and Western cultural practices forming a unique mixture of beliefs.

Some Christians are permissive, while others are conservative. This has led to disunity, for example in the areas of dressing.

Discrimination; There is inequality within the church between the rich and the poor, the whites and blacks. Some Christians are viewed as more spiritual than others, on basis of the tribe, gender, wealth and social status among others.

Misuse of freedom of worship;  Christians are starting sprinter churches, probably because they want to control church finances without supervision by the wider church. To justify their departure, they spread propaganda against the ‘mother’ church, and other churches in order to attract followers. The more followers a church has the more tithe it collects.

Misuse of church funds;  Some church leaders and followers misuse church funds

Differences in the practice of baptism

Arrogance and pride by some Christians.

Sins: sexual immorality in the church, divorce and marriage issues.

Some Christian denominations reject the human nature of the person of Jesus Christ; that Christ had both a human and divine nature e.g. Nomiya church.

SAQ. Can you think of factors that led to disunity among Christians in the early church that you have noted in the Kenyan church?

c. Reasons why Christians should work in Unity.

Christians face many problems and they therefore need to work together in unity to:

Promote oneness of Christians in Jesus Christ.

Promote the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Achieve effective evangelism or ministry.

Adopt a common attitude to the integration of African culture in worship.

Prevent the formation of sprinter groups and cults.

Reduce the internal wrangling.

Have a common stand in dealing with issues affecting the society.

d. Possible Solutions to disunity

The church should settle issues that divide its members by Christians:

Learning to appreciate and respect the practices and belief of other Christian’s denominations. Having or forming a common goal

Striving to be guided by the principle of love in solving problems facing them

Observing the teachings of disciples, prophets, apostles, God, laws of Moses, Jesus and the Bible. Avoiding doing anything to their fellow Christians that would cause suffering and disharmony

Activities that the early church did in order to remain united were that they:

Ate bread together

Held fellowships together

Shared with the needy

Prayed together for each other

In the current worldwide Church, there is disunity amongst believers or Christians. The most common ones are due.

Leadership differences and wrangles for power.

Cultural differences amongst Christians

Some Christians are permissive while others are conservative.

Differences in the interpretation of the Bible

Misuse of church funds

Pride and arrogance

Revision questions

  1. Write down terms used in the new testament to refer to believers in Christ
  • Identify five causes of disunity in the church today
  • Identify factors which cause disunity among the Christians today
  • Discuss reasons why members of Christian families in Kenya find it difficult to harmoniously live together
  • Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today

Revision questions

1.     1992 Q 3a, b

         a)  Explain the life of the early church community

         b) Discuss problems encountered by the church at Corinth.

2.     1996 Q 9

       State five ways in which the Roman Empire helped in the spread of the early Church                                                                                                                                                (5marks)

3.     1996 Q 15

          Identify five problems which Dr. Ludwing Crapft experienced when he worked as a missionary in Kenya between 1844 and 1858.                                              (5marks)

4.     1996 Q 16

            State five ways in which the missionaries in Kenya helped to rehabilitate the freed

            slaves in the nineteenth century.                                                                    (5marks).

5.     1996 Q 17

            Give five reasons why some missionaries in Kenya condemned the practice of female circumcision.                                                                                                  (5marks)

6.     1996 Q 1b( pp 2)

        b) Identify factors which cause disunity among Christians today.                    (9marks)

7.     1996 Q 3b ( pp 2)

        b) How did the early Christians community preserve the teachings of Jesus?    (8marks)

8.     1997 Q 10

        State five effects of the conversion of Paul on the early Church                      (5marks)

9.     1997 Q 11

            State the teachings of St Paul in the Resurrection                                        (5marks)

10.     1997 Q 12

            Write down five lessons on the cost of discipleship that Christians can learn from the Uganda martyrs.                                                                                             (5marks)

11.     1997 Q 3a, c (pp 2)

            a)         State the teachings of Saint Paul in 1 Corinthians 13 about love     (9marks)

c)         Discuss the problems that Church ministers (priests) encounter in their work                                                                                                                        (8marks)

12.     1998 Q 9

           Give five qualities of an apostle in the early church                                      (5 marks)

13.     1998 Q 10

            State five activities a modern Christian can perform in order to be considered a true

            follower of Christ                                                                                              (5 marks)

14.     1998 Q 3a,c ( pp 2)

            (a) Relate Saint Paul’s teaching on responsibility for others according to

                 Galatians (6: 1-10)                                                                                    (8 marks)

(c) Explain how the church strengthens family relationships today             (7 marks)

15.     1999 Q 2c (pp 2)

           (c)        Identify the activities the church engages in to demonstrate love for others

                                                                                                                        (9 marks)

16.    1999 Q 6 (pp 2)

          (a)         Describe methods used by the missionaries to win converts among the

Kenyan communities before 1963                                                     (16 marks)

            (b)       What factors have led to increase of Christian denominations in Kenya  today                                                                                                            (9 marks)

17.     2000 Q 10

           Give five reasons why Christians should live in a community                      (5 marks)

18.     2000 Q 11

            List five missionary groups that established mission stations in Kenya between 1890 and 1904                                                                                                         (5 marks)

19.     2000 Q 12

            State five factors that led to the rise of African leadership in the Christians Church in Kenya                                                                                       (5 marks)

20.     2000 Q 13

            State five factors that led to the rise of African leadership in the Christian church in Kenya                                                                                                  (5 marks)

21.     2000 Q 14

            State five factors which led to the coming of missionaries to Kenya                       (5 marks)

22.     2000 Q 2c ( pp 2)

           c)          State the actions the church members would take in handling cases of dishonesty.                                                                                           (7 marks)

23.     2000 Q 3

            a)         Describe the conversion of Paul the Apostle by Jesus Christ as recorded in                                                the Acts of the Apostles.                                                                   (12marks)      

            b)         Identify the problems faced by the early church before the conversion of  Paul the Apostle.

            c)         Give reasons why a person should be converted to Christianity.     (7marks)

24.     2001 Q 8

         Give five reasons why the disciples did not believe that Christians were persecuted.                                                                                                                                                (5marks)

25.     2001 Q 9

            Write down five ways through which the early Christians were persecuted.            (5marks)

26.     2001 Q 10

            List five spiritual gifts given to the church according to Saint Paul.

27.     2001 Q 11

            List five way which the missionaries used to increase African participant in the Church in Kenya between 1844 and 1914                                                      (5marks)

28.     2001 Q 12

            State five ways which the missionaries used to increase African participation in the church in Kenya between 1940 and 1960                                                      (5marks)

29.     2001 Q 2c ( pp 2)

          c)           How can harmony between the church and the state promoted by Christians in Kenya today?                                                              (7marks)

30.     2001 Q 3b (pp 2)

           b) Explain ways through which the power of God was seen in the early church.                                                                                                                                                     (8marks)

31.     2002 Q 15

          Identify five problems that Christian missionaries face today                                   (5 marks)

32.      2002 Q 4 (pp 2)

           a)  Describe the factors that led to the spread of Christianity in the Apostolic age.                                                                                                                                                 (12marks)

            b)         In what ways the celebration of the Lord’s Supper misused in the church at

Corinth?                                                                                              (5marks)

c)        Give reasons why Christians take part in the Holy Communion.      (8marks)

33.     2003  Q 11

          List five practices of the early Christian community.                                     (5marks)

34.      2003 Q 12

            State five traditional African customs that were condemned by the early Christian missionaries in Kenya                                                                        (5marks)

35.     2003 Q 5b, c

          b) How did the believers in the early church take care of the needy?                        (8marks)

          c)           Identify ways in which the youth participate in the church in Kenya today.                                                                                                                                                            (7marks)

36.     2004 Q 9

          State five ways through which God revealed himself in the early church      (5marks)

37.     2004 Q 10

            State five reasons why the early Christian shared meals

38.     2004 Q 15

         List five protestant missions in Kenya by 1914.                                              (5marks)

39.     2004 Q 16

            Write down five ways in which the catechists helped in spreading Christianity in Kenya.                                                                                                                                    (5marks)

40.     2004 Q 3 b, c (pp 2)

          b)           Identify the problems that Paul faced in spreading the gospel.        (12marks)

          c)           What lessons do Christian learn from the life of Stephen?               (5marks)

41.     2005 Q 9

          Identify five factors that enabled Paul to win converts among the Gentiles. (5marks)

42.     2005 Q 10

            State five reasons on the cost of discipleship that Christians learn from the story of

Perpetua and Felicita.                                                                                     (5marks)

43.     2005 Q 15

          State five problems faced by the Christian missionaries in Kenya by 1914.

44.     2005 Q 4b,c ( pp 2)

  • With reference to the day of Pentecost, outline Peter’s message to the people                                                                                 

                                                                                                            (12 marks)

  • What should be the qualities of an evangelist in Kenya today?       ( 6 marks)

45.     2006 Q 4( pp 2)

            (a)       Identify the spiritual gifts taught by Saint Paul in early church       (6 marks)

  • Explain how the use of the  Holy Spirit brought disunity in the  church at Corinth                                                                                                                        (8 marks)
  • Outline the contribution of women in the church in Kenya today.   (6 marks)

46.     2007 Q 1c ( pp 2)

          (c)         Identify problems faced by new converts in the church today.         (7 marks)

47.     2007 Q 2c (pp 2)

          (c)Give reasons why children should take part in church activities.              (6 marks)

48.     2008 Q 4b,c ( pp 2)

           b) Explain what the teaching of Jesus about the vine and the branches in

               John 15:1-10 reveal about the unity of believers.                                      (8 marks)

           c) Give seven ways in which Christians prevent divisions in the church in Kenya today.                                                                                                  (7 marks)

49.     2009 Q 2c (pp 2)

          c)         State five ways in which church leaders can respond to those who

                       oppose them in their work                                                                 (5marks)

50.    2009 Q 3c

          (c)Give seven factors that have led to the increase of Christian denominations 

               in Kenya today.                                                                                           (7marks)

51.     2009 Q 4b (pp 2)

 b)        Identify four teachings of saint Paul on the similarities between the

               church and husband-wife relationship. (Ephesians 5: 21-32)

52.     2010 Q 1c

       c)     State five ways in which Christians show respect to places of worship

                 in Kenya today.                                                                                   (5 marks)

53.     2010 Q 4a, b

          a)       Explain the teaching of Peter concerning the people of God

                              (1st Peter 2: 9 – 10).                                                                      (10 marks)

    b)       Give six ways through which Christians can promote unity among  

            themselves in Kenya today.                                                                      (6 marks)

  1.   2012 Q4a, c P1

 (a) Explain how the unity of believers is expressed in the image of the body of Christ.

                                                                                                                    (8 marks)

            (c) In what ways do the Christians in Kenya demonstrate the New Testament

                 teaching on Unity?                                                                                  (6 marks)


1992 Q3a, b

  • They led a life of prayer/fasting
  • They witnessed the risen Christ/preached about the risen Christian
  • Simon Peter was their leader leadership under original disciples of Christians.
  • They received the Holy Spirit /were led by the Holy Spirit.
  • It was a growing community as new members were added to it each day.
  • New converts were baptized in the name of Jesus
  • They had fellowship
  • They practiced the breaking of bread/ celebrated the Lord’s supper.
  • They had communal meals in their houses / feast /Passover      
  • Performed miracles among the people (eg healing the sick/raising the dead)
  • Lived together as a community /in unity
  • They sold their property and shared the money, each according to his/ her needs.
  • They took care of /helped the needy/ widows
  • They attended temple worship.
  • They faced persecution from the Jewish leaders.
  • They condemned evil (eg Ananias and Sapphira).
  • There were deacons who took care of the distribution of food
  • Through the holy spirit they prophesied/spoke in tongues
  • Faith in God was Central in their social /religious activities.
  • There was the problem of factions characterized by quarrels /bickering (which had split the church into rival cliques).
  • There was the problem of interpreting / understanding the death of Christ /crucifixition
  • There was a high degree of immorality among Christians, worse than that found among
  • Christians (eg there was a member in the church who was living v/ith his father’s wife (step -mother). Thus committing incest, which others seemed to condone).
  • There was immorality (eg fornication/adultery/ prostituting among church members.
  • There was the problem of whether to marry or not o marry / celibacy/divorce.
  • On matters of litigation, Christians were taking legal action against fellow Christians (and had cases tried by non-Christian judges. This was a great scandal because Jews living in heathen cities did not take their case to Gentile Courts).
  • There was the question of eating meat offered to idols. (The problem was whether to eat or not eat food offered to idols).
  • There was the problem of idolatry / syncretism. (Some Christians worshipped God but also worshipped idols. I Cor 10:14)
  • The question of how women should dress in church and how they should behave in church.
  • People were divided on the celebration of the Lord’s Supper. Some had turned the occasion into social merry making
  • opportunity rather than an occasion of worship.

1996 Q 9

  • The persecution of Christianity by Roman authorities forced Christian to disperse in different parts of the empire to escape persecution. As they went to spread the Good news and where they settled they started the Christian community. The blood of the martyr is the seed of the church.
  • The roman authorities had provided good roads and other infrastructure which make communication easy. Thus Christians missionaries and preachers were able to travel with relative ease.
  • The roman  authorities maintained law  and order therefore  peace  a factor  which enabled Christian missionaries to travel safely within the empire
  • There was unity  in the Roman empire, under the ruler  in Rome  thus citizens of the  empire could move from place to place without  hindrance or visas. A factor  which  helped the Christians missionaries in their  travels
  • Greek was the common language ( Lingua- Franca) of the  empire which enabled the  Christians to communicate their  message wherever they went
  • The empire had adopted Greek education philosophy and cultures which provided a point  of departure  in preaching  the gospel.
  • The organization skills of the Roman  administrators, provinces, city states and towns helped the Christians in founding churches
  • There was some degree of religious freedom which  had  allowed  Jewish  synagogues to exist in cities from where the missionaries started preaching the  gospel.
  • The roman  authorities gave roman citizenship to  non- romans which  allowed them the same privileges as the Roman themselves. Those Christians like Paul who had this citizenship could travel throughout the  empire with guaranteed safety and  protection.
  • Later part of roman empire, Christianity was  encouraged by Emperor Eenstantine.                                        (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1996 Q15

  • Hostile climate i.e hot and humid weather
  • Language barriers, at first he could not communicate effectively with the local people
  • Had to contend with  tropical diseases e.g. malaria/ lack of proper medical facilities
  • Suffered personal tragedies when he lost his wife and child through death
  • Hostility from some quarters e.g. Muslim Arabs and Swahili. Suffered an attack by robbers when he traveled inland  with Chief Kivoi
  • Frustrations because the people he had come to work among were slow in accepting the gospel/ slow phase of the missionary work
  • Problems of adopting to a different life style form the one he used to in Europe e.g. housing, food
  •  Suffered from loneliness
  • Lack of transport
  • Wild animals                                                                          (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1996 Q 16

  • They established freed slaves colonies/ centers in their mission stations e.g. Freetown, Rabai, Ribe, Jomvu, Mazeras where they provided the homeless freed slaves with home/ shelter and other basic needs
  • They taught the freed slaves industrial/ vocational skills to help them become self- supporting e.g. carpenters, masons, Bricklayers
  • Some of them were professionally trained as catechists, evangelists, teachers to enable them secure employment
  • Provided them with formal education to help them improve their living standards and fir self – realization
  • Taught Christianity/ converted to Christianity to create awareness of their human dignity and worth
  •  Some freed slaves were given jobs in the mission stations as teachers, catechists, evangelists
  • They provided them with land on which to grow  their food as well as provided them with agricultural tools/ material support for business
  • They taught the freed slaves better agricultural methods to improve their yield
  • They were taught health science, hygiene and home science to help improve their health
  • They were provided with medical care and medicine
  • Those who wanted to live outside the colony were allowed and helped to do so.
  • They were helped to find marriage partners
  • They were to observe very strict discipline/ helped in character building                                                                                                                           (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1996 Q 17

  • They argued that the practice was unnecessary / useless
  • They viewed the practice with abhorrence/ it was repugnant
  • It was not keeping wife European uncivilized norms/ European civilization
  • They condemned it was an absence act/ immoral act
  • It was injurious to the health of the  girls/ could lead to death though bleeding/ could cause infection/ had medical consequences especially in maternity cases
  • It was unchristian/ not agreeable with the biblical teachings          

      (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1996 Q1b (PP2)

  • Selfishness/ greed for money by some Christians
  • Rivalry/ competition for leadership positions/ greed for power
  • Misinterpretation by some Christians of the work of the Holy Spirit
  • Arrogance/ Pride by some Christians
  • Corruption in the church
  • Failure by the church leaders to live according to the law of god/ their failure to live exemplary lives
  • Lack of concern by some Christians about the plight of others
  • Misinterpretation of the Bible/ doctrinal differences
  • Misuse of church funds/  power by some leaders
  • Lack of transparency/ accountability in running church affairs
  • The emergency of charismatic movements in the church creates a situation where some Christians think they are more equal/ holier than others.
  • Political interference where Christians find themselves in different political camps
  • Sexism/ women are not involved in decision making they are under represented
  • Discrimination against the youth churches ignoring the youth in the running of the church
  • Tribalism where Christians are divided along tribal lines/ racism
  • Denominational differences.                                                  (9 x 1 = 9 marks)

1996 Q3b (PP2)

  • Through worship e.g. Prayers/ praises
  • Preaching the good news to others/ baptism
  • Teachings/ instructions by the apostles
  • Putting the teachings of Jesus into practice/ committed to Jesus teaching (e.g. helping the poor/ sharing e. t.c)
  • By witnessing about Jesus/ testimonies
  • Celebrating of the Lord’s supper’
  • Missionary work
  • Writing/ keeping a written record of the teachings of Jesus/ what he did and said.
  • Keryoma/ oral traditions
  • Through their faith in Jesus Christ
  • Allowing the Holy Spirit to guide them
  • Welcoming/ winning the converts into the community
  • Through counseling/ pastoral care
  • Through writing letters/ epistles
  • Through visiting other members
  • Sharing of the good news among themselves/ fellowship
  • Apostle training e.g. Paul trained Timothy
  • Accepting to suffer/ persecution and even death for the sake of the gospel
  • Incorporating people’s culture into the gospel ( E.g. Hellenism/ Greek Philosophy)                                                                            ( 9 x 1 = 9 marks)

1997 Q 10

  • The persecution of Christians decreased as Paul had been their chief persecutor
  • Expansion of the new faith through Paul’s missionary journeys/ evangelization
  • The spread of the new faith to the Gentiles as Paul had been appointed apostle to the Gentiles
  • Paul’s letter to different churches were included in the scriptures/ canonized
  • Through his teachings and admonitions to different churches. Paul gave interpretations to Christians doctrines/ clarified the teachings of the church
  • He helped set up structures in the early church e.g. types of leadership and thus church in a society
  • By his examples of tolerance, Constance in faith the Gospel in spite of persecution he set a model for other Christians to emulate at this difficult time of persecution
  • Paul defended the gospel against any attacks

1997 Q 11

  • The resurrection of Jesus was foretold in the scriptures/ resurrected according to scriptures
  • His appearance to Peter the twelve and the five hundred
  • Jesus appeared to Paul
  • Jesus resurrection is a proof that there is the resurrection of the dead
  • God raised Jesus from the dead
  • Christians faith is found on their belief in the resurrection of Jesus
  • Because Christ rose from the dead, all those who die will resurrect
  • The resurrection of Jesus destroyed death/ was victory over death
  • Baptism signifies that Jesus resurrected
  • People will resurrect in new/  different spiritual bodies
  • The trumpet will sound and the dead will be raised imperishable and all will be changed a day.
  • Resurrection gives hope to believers/ Christians                  5 x 1 = 5 marks)

1997 Q 3a,c PP2)

  • It is a gift from God/ of the Holy spirit
    • It is the most important gift
    • It is patient / does not let down.
    • It kind
    • Not jealous/envious
    • Not conceited/Proud /not cruel/not self seeking
    • Not ill mannered
    • Not selfish/it is generous/ not cruel/not self seeking.
    • Not irritable/ resentful/not quick to anger/bears no grudges
    • Does not keep a record of wrongs
    • Not  happy with evil
    • It is happy with truth
    • Never give up/endures/not tired/tolerant/withstands long suffering
    • Its faith/hope/patience never fails/it is reliable.
    • It is eternal                                                                              8  x 1 = 8 marks.
  • Lack of money/resources to pay their salaries/meet other expenses.
    • Poor housing/lack of housing for themselves/their families
    • Some Christians might reject a minister/lack of acceptance by some Christians on grounds of education/age/tribe.
    • What they preach/teach might make them unpopular with some members of the congregation/with the powers that be.
    • Might work in geographical hostile environments where they might suffer from disease/drought/weather /traveling long distances.
    • People might expect too much from them when they are only human.  When they make mistakes people may not readily forgive them.
    • some members may not co-operate with them.
    • Might face un co-operate from other church leaders (e.g. Bishops/moderators).
    • Might not be in agreement with some rules/regulations/ standing orders of the church.
    • Pastoral problems might be too complex to deal with/might not be able to handle some people.
    • Settling quarrels/disagreements/disputes without being seen to take sides suffer from stress.
    • Depression from personal problems/ problems form the congregation and have nobody to share with them/might not share problems with people for fear of exposing weaknesses.
    • Problems/ harassment form civil authorities/politicians who might want to use the church for their own benefits/accusation of involvement in politics.
    • Might not know how to deal with different groups in the church (e.g. youth/women/men/choir/revival groups).
    • Might face cultural barriers. Language problems if they are not working in their home districts.
    • Temptations from worldly/ earthly pleasures/materials.
    • External factors-competition/rivalry from other religions/other Christian denominations.
    • Too much demand on their time/services by the members.  8×1=8marks

1998 Q 9

  • He was called/appointed by God
    • He was to be prepared to persevere/ suffer for Christ.
    • Be ready to forgive those who persecute/no retaliation
    • He was to humble /avoid pride
    • strive to win converts for the Lord
    • Be loyal /teach Christian principles/ doctrines
  • Commit one’s life to the course and work of Christ
  • Depend on God for provision and wisdom
  • Rely on the Holy Spirit for interpretation/ revelation/inspiration.

   5 x1=5marks

1998 Q10

  • Take a vocation/ do work whose benefits are minimal –even when there is a better alternative.
  • Spreading the gospel in remote places/under difficult circumstances/ persevering persecution.
  • Witnessing through work (e.g. teaching, medical, social work)
  • Guiding and counseling people in understanding God’s message/interpreting God’s blessings/guidance.
  • Setting good example / role models
  • Praying for God’s blessing/guidance
  • Helping the needy/by providing (food, shelter, clothes)
  • Helping the needy/by providing (food, shelter, clothes)
  • Keeping to the teachings of Jesus Christ.                              5 x1 =5marks.

1998 Q 3a, c (PP2)

  • Correcting wrong doers gently.
    • Sharing one another’s problems/burdens.
    • Avoiding boastful behaviour that may discourage other in faith/self righteousness.
    • Taking care that one does not fall into temptation lest one becomes a stumbling block to the brethren.
    • Everyone will be responsible for his/her spiritual life/problems
    • There should be fellowship between the teacher and the learner.
    • Whoever sows evil will be punished/whoever sows good will be rewarded.
    • Be honest to God for He is not mocked.
  • Through guidance and counseling /mediation.
  • Hold seminars/conferences/etc for couples/children/the youth.
  • Through publications on Christian living (e.g. magazines/books/ pamphlets).
  • Use of mass –media (radio/videos/television).
  • Through preaching/teaching /condemning vices
  • Through offering pastoral care in homes/house visits.
  • Giving financial support to the needy families
  • Praying for the families.
  • Offering employment to the jobless.
  • Providing vocational training /skills                                     7×1 =7marks.

1999 Q 2c (PP2)

  • Pastoral care/counseling (visits- in general terms.
  • Giving offering/tithes
  • Worshipping together/fellowships
  • Praying for one another/faith healing
  • Preaching/evangelizing
  • By baptizing/confirming converts/other sacraments
  • Giving education/training so as to improve living standards
  • Condemnation of evil
  • Opening of money generating projects to assist those in need/offering employment.
  • Involvement in Harambee projects
  • Providing affordable medical care
  • Homes for destitute/orphaned children /aged
  • Provide water for digging boreholes/in the arid semi arid areas
  • Relief food /clothes/sharing resources/arms/ work of charity / helping the needy
  • Visiting the sick in hospitals/homes

1999 Q 6 (PP2)

  • Use of education- Where the Africans were able to read and write/ read the Bible/catechism.
  • Use of gifts-Sugar/food/clothes) Charity.
  • Use of medical assistance/service thus winning the African favour.
  • Teaching Africans new agricultural skills.
  • Teaching Africans technical skills.
  • Construction of worshipping place
  • Befriending the local rules (e.g chiefs/headmen) the missionaries learnt the local languages of the people.
  • They translated parts of the bile Hymns/Creeds into local languages.
  • They used advanced technology when preaching (radio/newspapers/books etc)
  • They were friendly in their approach/defended African interests against colonialists.
  • They encouraged worship in local languages/tolerated certain African interests against colonialists.
  • They use the local people in the church as elders/lay leaders/priests/catechists.
  • They rehabilitated feed slaves/outcasts.
  • They offered employment to converts.
  • Missionaries denied certain services as an indirect force so as to win converts.                                                                               


  • Desire to be free from missionary control
  • Rivalry for leadership/hunger for power
  • Difference in biblical interpretations/teachings.
  • Resistance to change by older members of the church
  • Lack of good example/role model/corruption
  • Rise of revival movement that emphasize the work of the Holy Spirit/spiritual pride.
  • Disagreements on the mode of worship (rituals)
  • Tribalism/clanism/nepotism/sectionalism/Social class/racism
  • Search for spiritual satisfaction/growth.
  • Search for spiritual satisfaction/growth.
  • Freedom of worship guaranteed in the Kenyan constitution.
  • Permissiveness in society.
  • For material gains/greed/selfishness/money                                     9×1= 9marks

2000 Q 10

  • To profess/proclaim their faith
    • To encourage and strengthen one another in the Lord/praying/worship together
    • To become a new people of God/ spirit of brotherhood/separate themselves from non believers
    • To emulate Christ who lived with his disciples
    • To share their material belonging/assist the needy/solve problems together
    • To dedicate themselves fully to God’s work/ to fellowship together.

2000 Q 11

  • Church Missionary society (CMS)- Kabete 1904
  • Holy Ghost Fathers 1890-91 (Mombasa)
  • African Inland Mission (Kangundo 1902)
  • Church of Scotland Mission (CSM), Kibwezi 1893
  • SDA-Seventh Day Adventist
  • Friends African Mission/Qauakers (Kaimosi 1903)
  • Lutheran Church
  • Consolate Fathers  (Tutho And Nyeri 1902

2000 Q 12

  • Wanted to express Christianity in an African way
  • Wanted greater role in the leadership and administration of the church/desirable leadership/prominence.
  • Missionaries condemned the African cultures such as polygamy/female circumcision
  • The literate African were able to read the Bible and made better interpretation/became enlightened thus felt the need to change.
  • Bible translation created a desire to worship god in African way
  • Realised that there was little or no difference between the missionaries and colonialists
  • Wanted freedom from European domination
  • Africans were not happy with the missionaries condemnation of their religious beliefs.

2000 Q 14

  • The rise of revival movements in Europe
  • To win more Christian converts to the Christian faith
  • To stop slave trade and introduce legitimate trade
  • Improve the living standards of Africans
  • Obeying Jesus Christ’s command of evangelizing the whole world
  • To settle freed slaves
  • Population pressure in Europe
  • To Introduce medical services
  • To civilize the Africans
  • To introduce formal education
  • The respect given by early explorers                                     5×1=5marks

2000 Q 2c (PP2)

  • Find out what problems the members have/reasons for dishonesty.
  • Help the people to meet their basic needs.
  • Offering guidance and  counseling.
  • Forgive them
  • Pray for them
  • Encourage them to pray.
  • Report the matter to the authorities/discipline them.
  • Help the people to set up income generating projects.
  • Fellowshipping with them
  • Preach to them.
  • Setting a good-example for them to emulate
  • Delegating duties to responsible persons
  • Teaching them to live responsibly
  • Encourage them to avoid situations which could lead them to dishonesty

2000 Q 3

  • Saul was on his way to Damascus to persecute Christians
  • A strange light stuck him and the voice of the lord said “saul why do you persecute me?”
  • Saul recognized the voice of the strange power and asked, “Who are you Lord?”
  • The men who were traveling with him stood speechless as they heard the voice but saw no one.
  • Saul was blinded and had to be lead to Damascus.
  • Saul was blind for three days and stayed without food or drink
  • The lord spoke to Ananias at Damascus to lay his hands on Saul so that his sight could
  • Ananias laid his hands on Saul and he regained his sight
  • Saul was baptized and was filled with Holy spirit.
  • Ananias also gave him food and Saul was strengthened.
  • They were stoned to death /killed.
  • They were accused falsely.
  • They were arrested.
  • They were imprisoned.
  • They were mistaken for being drunk when they spoke in tongues.
  • There was unfairness in distribution of foods to widows.
  • They scattered in fear of persecution.
  • There was dishonest among some members e.g. Saphira and Ananias.
  • They were warned/threatened not to use the name of Jesus in their preaching.
  • They were whipped/beaten
  • They were persecuted/oppressed.
  • To have eternal life in heaven.
  • To enter God’s kingdom on earth.
  • To turn away from sins/seek forgiveness/receive salvation.
  • To enjoy  god’s covenant/enter God’s covenant relationship
  • To be the light/salt of the world.
  • To acquire a new identity.
  • To escape judgment/fire in hell/punishment.

2001 Q 9

  • They were imprisoned
  • They were stoned to death e.g. Stephen
  • Not allowed to preach in public
  • They were denied access to the temple
  • They were beheaded.
  • They were beaten /flogged/tortured
  • They were ridiculed/mocked/ despised
  • They were insulted/abused.
  • They were thrown to wild animals
  • They were crucified .
  • They were thrown into boiling oil
  • Any other forms of persecution which are relevant/poisoned/stripped naked/slavery/exiled/thrown out by family(Rejection) Banished   


2001 Q 10

  • Faith
  • Knowledge
  • Healing
  • Performing miracles
  • Prophecy
  • Distinguishing between spirits
  • Interpretation of tongues
  • Speaking in tongues                                                               5×1= 5marks

2001 Q 11

  • They had a call from God/Inspiration
  • They hoped for internal gain (Education, European way of life/European civilization/culture practice.
  • They wanted to identify with Europeans/European way of life/European civilization/culture practice.
  • They were forced into the mission stations by their local leaders thus got converted.
  • The misfits/outcasts in Africa communities found refuge in missions stations and hence got converted/stopping slave trade/orphans/widows.
  • There were those who were curious about the new faith/pealing
  • There were those who wanted to enhance their social status/prestige/superiority/equality.
  • Some of Traditional belief talked with Christian teaching       
  • Bible translocation                                                                 (5×1=5marks)

2001 Q 12

  • Training of African Church leaders both locally and abroad (St. Pauls theological College, Limuru, St. Thomas Aquinas Seminary).
  • Appointing African to leadership positions e.g. Catechist/Priest
  • Establishing local parishes/Dioceses.
  • Incorporating African culture practices in worship e.g. clamping hands/tunes
  • Adopting African attire e.g. way of dressing by clergy.
  • Using African architectural styles in the construction of Churches.
  • Use of African languages in worship/translation of bible into local language
  • Allowing interaction between of different denominations/ecumenism
  • Offering special privileges to Church leaders e.g. given a good house.


2001 2c (PP2)

  • Encourage the faithful to obey the rulers
  • Allowing the rulers to become leaders in the church/inviting them to the church
  • Preaching/condemning evils in the society
  • Advising the political leaders on the correct ways of administering
  • Supporting state related projects
  • Participating in reforming laws governing the country
  • Promoting the positive image of the country/highlighting the positive activities of the state
  • Working jointly with the state when calamities occur/helping the need
  • Participating in elections of leaders
  • Paying taxes
  • Praying for God’s intervention
  • Contributing to participation in national development activities (education, health, self-help, etc)                                                                         (7×1=7marks)

2001 Q 3b (PP2)

  • They were able to pray together/fellowship
  • They lived together
  • They shared meals in their homes/breaking of the bread
  • They performed miracles/healing/exorcising/raising the dead
  • They persevered persecutions/humbled themselves
  • They had courage/were bold/they condemned evil
  • They were able to speak in tongues/interpret languages
  • They were able to solve problems/conflicts amicably
  • They sold their property for the common good/shared property
  • They laid hands on the converts
  • They baptized the new converts
  • They appointed leaders/deacons
  • They distributed food to the widows/orphans                                               (8×1 8marks)

2002 Q 15

  • Inadequate finance
  • Poor transport system/ infrastructure
  • Language barriers
  • Diverse customs/ traditions
  • Suspicion/ rivalry among Christians religious cults, rejection
  • Insecurity/ instability
  • Greed/ corruption/ social evils
  • Inadequate theological training
  • Failure to lead exemplary lives
  • Negative  influence of the mass  media/ effects of  science & technology
  • Hostile climate conditions- diseases

2002 Q 4 (PP2)

  • Persecution of Christians
  • They were led/guided by the Holy Spirit
  • Good Communication/ Infrastructure
  • Common language/ Greek
  • There was peace in the  Roma empire
  • The Jews  in the  Diaspora/ dispersion, welcomed the early disciples
  • Good system  of government  with  just laws
  • Dual citizenship of Paul
  • Paul’s strong religious background in the Old Testament which was the basis for the new testament
  • Paul’s occupation which was a source of income / inspiration to others
  • Paul’s celibate status enabled him to be  fully committed to the preaching of the gospel
  • The miracles/ wonders strengthened the disciples/ new converts faith
  • The great number of converts inspired the  others to join the new  faith
  • They were empowered by the Holy Spirit
  • They ignored the significance of the feast taken as on ordinary meal
  • It led to drunkenness/ disorder less
  • It did not unite believers/ created divisions in the church
  • It led to the oppression of the poor Christians/ rich showed off
  • They took it when they were unworthy/ profaned it
  • They did not seek God’s blessings/ give thanks
  • Reminds them of the death and resurrection of Jesus
  • Proclaim the death and resurrection of Christ until he comes
  • Unites the believers
  • Helps them to rededicate themselves/ confess/ pray
  • Reminds them to God’s love humanity/ strengthen their faith
  • It is a thanksgiving for God’s saving act
  • It symbolizes the body and blood of Jesus
  • It  is a foretaste of the second coming of Christ
  • It is a sign of purity of the believers of Christ
  • in Obedience to Jesus commands
  • It is a sign of the new covenant sealed in the blood  of Christ

2003 Q 11

  • praying/ fasting/ celebration of feast
  • Breaking  of bread
  • Baptism
  • Singing/ praising
  • Reading the word/ preaching
  • Sharing  possessions
  • Having fellowship
  • Laying  of hands/ healing/ blessing                           ( 5 x  1 = 5 marks)

2003 Q 12

  • Initiation ceremonies/ rituals
  • Polygamy/ Bigamy/ polyandry/ wife inheritance
  • Killing twins
  • Songs and dances/ music
  • Beer taking
  • Use  of herbal medicine
  • Ways of worship/ practice
  • Ways  of dressing
  • Consulting African  specialist
  • African superstitions/ belief/ witchcraft                               ( 5 x  1 = 5 marks)

2003 Q5 b, c

  • Took care of the poor/needy /widowers by giving them food/other provisions and share.
  • They held everything in common and distributed it according to individuals needs.
  • They prayed for the needy on salvation
  • They collected money and sent to the Jews that were at Jerusalem
  • They accepted others in their home like those who were in need
  • They counseled the needy on their problem
  • Showed concern/ sympathy to those with illness by healing them.
  • Visited and welcomed those who were released from the prison into their homes
  • They showed love to them.
  • They participate in bible reading
  • They take part in singing as choir members
  • They help in collection of tithe
  • They help in distribution of invitation letters for an occasion
  • The youths help in cleaning the church and its facilities before members come for prayers
  • Helping the church in holding campaign e.g. HIV campaign.
  • They engage in church crusade and distributing poster crusades.
  • Holding the church crusade and distributing poster crusades.

2004 Q 9

  • Through visions
  • Through dreams
  • Through the works of the  Holy Spirit/ gifts of holy spirit/ prophecy through work of  miracles
  • Through miracles, wonders, signs ( release of Paul, Peter)
  • [1] 
  • Through scriptures/ Bible/ Holy book
  • Through angles
  • Election of  apostle/ deacons/ laying  of hands
  • Growth of the church ( king Constantine)
  • The faith of people endurances during  persecution Stephen/ Perpetua

                                                                                                            (5 marks)

2004 Q 10

  • It was a demonstration of unity of the body of Christ
  • As a  sign  of love  among the believers
  • It was a tradition  started during the Passover/ Lord’s supper – commemoration
  • It was a way of catering for the needy people
  • It was a way of  evangelizing/ spreading the gospel/  worship together
  • In order to enhance equality  of believers- common  pool
  • In readiness  of Jesus 2nd  coming
  • In order to provide  an  opportunity for fellowshipping/ strengthen their faith
  • Sign of obedience to Jesus/ community to be generous/ emulate Jesus way of life/ sharing/ generosity.

2004 Q 15

  • The United  Methodist  Mission
  • The Church  Missionary Society ( CMS)
  • Friends African Mission (quakers)
  • The church of Scotland  mission ( CMS)
  • The Lutheran church
  • Pentecostal Assembles  of God
  • The gospel Missionary Society
  • Seventh Day Adventists ( SDA)
  • Church of God

2004 Q 16

  • They taught the other  converts how to read the bible
  • They helped the missionaries to translate the bible  into  other languages
  • They accepted/ practiced Christian  Monogamous marriage
  • They abandoned  some traditional ritual ceremonies
  • Their new lifestyles attracted other  African  to them Christianity ( role  model)
  • They preached  the gospel in their  home  areas and beyond
  • They established smaller meeting  places  in the interior
  • They were used as  interpreters by the  missionaries
  • They  organized fellowship/ worship in areas where the missionaries could  not reach
  • They provided security.

2004 Q 3 b,c (PP2)

  • People did not believe that he was  an apostle/ his conversion
  • His message was rejected
  • He was beaten/ stoned
  • He was imprisoned
  • He was deserted by close friends/ mark/ barnabarbas
  • Some of the believers were backsliding
  • There was competition from other preachers ( apostles)
  • There was lack of money/ finance
  • There were plots to kill him
  • Influences of other religious/ cultural/ ideologies/ practices
  • He was  persecuted/ oppressed
  • He was ship wrecked
  • Be ready to serve God/ people
  • One should be ready to forgive
  • Christians should have faith in God
  • They should endure persecution
  • They should be wise/ knowledgeable
  • They should be ready to witness  for Christ
  • They should be prayerful
  • They should be of good repute/ exemplary
  • They should be ready to condemn evil

2005 Q 9

  • He was a Roman citizen
  • His occupation as a tentmaker was not a burden
  • He was well versed in religious/ legal matters
  • He was unmarried/ celibate
  • He was able to reach many  converts through letter writing
  • The ability to perform  miracles and  wonders
  • There was peace in the Roman empire/ pax Roman
  • The use of Greek as a common  language in Roman empire
  • There were good roads/ sea transport which led to efficient travel
  • The Greek/ Roman religious were  not fulfilling                  (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

2005 Q 10

  • A Christian should be ready to suffer/ endure persecution
  • Christians should have faith in God
  • They should love one another/ unite in suffering
  • They should forgive their enemies
  • They should be bold/ courageous
  • They should rejoice in suffering
  • They should encourage/ strengthen one another
  • They should know that God’s calling is a priority to family demand/ ties
  • Christians should know that martyrdom is not in vain/ there is hope in death                                                                                  

                                                                                                (5 marks)

2005 Q 15

  • Language barrier
  • Hostile reception by some  communities
  • Poor  means of transport
  • Tropical diseases
  • Unfavourable  climate conditions
  • Islam! African culture/ religion was an obstacle to Christian evangelization
  • Rivalry among themselves
  • Lack  of funds/ resources

2005 Q 4b, c (PP2)

  • He told the people that the disciples  were  not drunk
  • They were  filled  by the holy  spirit as fulfillment of God’s prophecy
  • That Jesus was the son of God
  • God’s power was seen in the  miracles, signs  and wonders performed  by Jesus
  •  Jesus had been killed by the Jews because of their wickedness
  • God raised Jesus  back to life
  • Jesus was a descendant of David
  • That Jesus ascended to heaven and is at the right hand of God
  • Jesus is the lord/ Christ
  • He called the people to repent their sins so as to be forgiven
  • They were to be baptized in the name of Jesus  Christ         (6 x 2 = 12 marks)
  • Should be knowledgeable in/ conversant with God’s word
  • Should be obedient to God’s commandments
  • Have their faith / trust in Jesus
  • Preach the gospel/ win others to the kingdom  of God
  • Should help the needy
  • Live  a life  of fellowship with others/ listen to others
  • Be exemplary/ be the salt and light of the world/ role model
  • Ready to suffer for Christ/ self denial
  • Guide and counsel others
  • Pray all the time
  • Condemn evils in the society                                                 (6 x 1 = 6 marks)

2006 Q 4 (PP2)

  • Wisdom
  • Knowledge
  • Faith
  • Healing
  • Working miracles
  • Prophecy/ preaching
  • ability to distinguish between  spirits/ discernment
  • Speaking in tongues
  • Interpretation of tongues                                                        ( 6 x 1 = 6 marks)
  • The people  who  had the gifts  of speaking in tongues despised those  who did not have
  • There was  competition  in speaking in tongues
  • There was  no interpretation of tongues  hence  messages were not understood
  • People did not show love to one another as they used  the gifts of the Holy
  • There was disorder/ confusion in worship  as people with different gifts tried to outdo one another
  • People did not use their  gifts for  the growth/ development  of the  church
  • Gifts such as  prophecy/ teaching/ preaching were  looked  down upon

                                                                                                 (8 marks)

  • Women engage in preaching the gospel/ evangelism
  • They clean/ decorate the church
  • Women take care of young children in the church
  • They contribute  money/ clothes/ food to the less fortunate/ needy
  • They prepare meals for  church  leaders/ visitors/ prepare holy  communion
  • They act as ushers in the church
  • Women run income generating projects/ other projects for the church
  • Women sing in church choir
  • They organize seminars/ workshops in the church/ guide and counsel members
  • They are leaders in the church/ participate in choosing  leaders
  • Women give tithes/ offering  to the church
  • Women pray/ intercede                                                          (6 x1 = 6 marks)

2007 Q 1c (PP2)

  • Poverty
  • Corruption/greed/selfishness
  • Disobedience /rebellion
  • Inability to forgive others
  • Influence from media/foreign culture
  • Wrong choices/lack of vision/peer pressure
  • Unemployment
  • Permissiveness
  • Influence of drug and substance abuse
  • Poor role models
  • Lack of guidance and counseling

2007 Q2c (PP2)

  • They are sometimes not fully accepted/integrated/discriminated against
  • The older Christians may not serve as role models
  • They may not be involved in activities/not given responsibilities
  • They are tempted to backslide to previous lifestyle
  • Older Christians expect them to change faster than they can
  • Some experience problems of communication/language barrier
  • They may lack Christian literature to strengthen their faith
  • In large churches, they get lost in the crowd/not identified/not recognized
  • The financial demands of the church may be too much for them
  • Lack of assistance/concern when a new member is in need.
  • Some get frustrated when their expectations are not met
  • They are given /assigned duties which they can’t manage
  • They maybe rebuked/embarrassed in public when suspected to be in wrong                                                                                                            (7 x 1 = 7 marks)

2008 Q 4b, c (PP2)

  • God is the vine dresser/Jesus is the true vine.
  • The followers of Jesus/the Christians are the branches.
  • Christians are related to God through Jesus.
  • The unfaithful Christians are the unfruitful branches which are cut away/destroyed.
  • The faithful Christians/fruitful branches are pruned so as to produce more fruit.
  • Christians can only bear fruits/do good things if they remain united to Christ.
  • Through Christ all Christians are joined to one another.
  • Christians should rely on God for all providence.
  • Love is passed on to the Christians from God through Christ.
  • Christians should observe/keep God’s commandments.       (4×2=8 marks)
  • Treat each other with love.
  • Avoid discriminations/segregations/tribalism in the church.
  • Preach/teach the word of God/Bible truths to believers.
  • Assist those in problems/poor/the less fortunate/the needy.
  • Practice humility/avoid arrogance.
  • Openly discuss issues affecting the church/respect the opinions of other people.
  • Pray for one another/problems affecting the church.
  • Practice transparent leadership styles.
  • Give financial reports within acceptable period of time.
  • Follow the church doctrines/constitutions/manuals/educate members on church procedures.
  • Repent/ask for forgiveness whenever they are wrong/accept their mistakes.
  • Preparing a budget annually/seasonally/ensuring that the resources are well utilized.
  • Guidance and counselling.                                                                 (7×1=7 marks)

2009 Q 2c (PP2)

  • Find out the causes/ reasons for the opposition.
    • The church leader should pray for/ with them.
    • Explain to them the Gospel truth in a humble manner/ guide and counsel them.
    • Seek reconciliation through third party/ another person.
    • Involve them in decision making / church activities
    • Recognize their efforts in supporting the church maters.
    • Visit them in their homes/ fellowship with them/ preaching.
    • Assist them when in problem. (financial/materially)
    • Send them message of encouragement.
    • Change your approach to issue/ reform where necessary. (5 marks)

2009 Q 3c

  • Rivalry for leadership /hunger for power.
  • Differences in biblical interoperations/ teaching /doctrine to suit the person preaching
  • Resistance to ‘Change by the older church members who want to remain as it was /generation gap..
  • Material gain/greed selfishness where starting a church has become a business,
  • Lacks of spiritual satisfaction by some members make them start their own churches,
  • Lack of good exam poor role model by the leaders / corrupt leaders.
  • Desire to be free from missionary/foreign control.
  • Differences in mode of worship/ritual observance/model of worship.
  • Nepotism / tribalism / clannish / racialism  among Christians.
  • The Kenya constitution has allowed freedom of worship.
  • Disagreements in ethical issues/ policies in the church regarding how certain matters should be handled e.g. family planning, dressing.

2009 Q 4b (PP2)

  • Members of the church learn to live together in harmony/unity just like a husband and wife
    • There is a chain of authority in, marriage where the head of family in the same way Christ is the head of church.
    • Just as Christ sacrificially loves the church, husband should love wives
  • The union between a husband and wife is meant to last forever, so Christians are called upon to maintain steadfast faithfulness to christ until eternity.
  • Christians are called to submit to christ just as a wife submits to her husband
  • Just as a husband and wife become one flesh, so Christians are supposed to be united/cling to Christ
    • Just as Christ nourished/cherishes the church, husbands should care for their wives.                                                                                      (4 x 2 = 8marks)

2010 Q 4b (PP2)

  • Christians maintain cleanliness in places of worship.
    • Christians observe silence in the places of worship.
    • Places of worship are treated with relevance (e.g in some cases shoes are removed etc)
    • Christian dress in decent clothing as they go to place of worship.
    • Order is maintained in places of worship/only authorised people are allowed to talk/make announcement.
    • Posters/notices/decorations/flowers are put to remind people taht they are in sacred places.
  • Constructing special places for worshipping God/dedicating them.

      (5 x 1 = 5marks)

2010 Q 4a, b

  • The believers are chosen people/race/they have been selected.
    • They are a royal priesthood/they are to save the greatest King/God.
    • They are Holy nation/expected to lead holy/righteousness lives
    • They belong to God/they form a family of God’s own possession.
    • They are to declare wonderful deeds of God/that is to lead a life of worshipping God/testifying about God.
    • They were called from darkness to light/their lives had been transformed and should not be dominated by evil.
    • They were once not a people/they were outside the covenant way of life.
    • They are led by the mercies of God/have received God’s grace.     

                  (5 x 2 = 10 marks)

  • Christian should hold joint/interdenominational prayers.
    • Christians take a joint stand against injustice/problems in the society.
    • They should work together to promote educational programmes in the country.
    • They should speak with one voice on matters of construction/political life of the nation.
    • Christians should join together in the training of the clergy/pastors/from different denominations.
    • They need to provide loans/funds/support to the poor irrespective of denomination affiliations.
    • Christian churches/organization should employ Christian from different denominations.
    • Christian communities should unite in provision of medical services.
    • Christian need to respect one another’s doctrinal positions.           

       (6 x 1 = 6marks)

 2012 Q4a, d P2

(a) .

  • St. Paul describes the believers as the body of Christ.
  • Christ is the head of the Church.
  • The believers form parts of the body.
  • The body has different organs. In the same way the Church has different member
  • They all need to work together for the well being of the Church.
  • Every part of the body is needed to make it whole/ail parts are interdependent/one part cannot be without the other.
  • The different Church members are given different spiritual gifts by the Holy Spirit to carry out God’s work.
  • There should be no division In the Church since all believers are members of the body of Christ.
  • Believers are united through baptism in the Holy Spirit.   (4×2 = 8 marks)
  • Christians meet for prayers/fellowship together.
  • They observe a day of worship to honour God.
  • They share the Holy communion/meals.
  • They help those who are poor/needy:
  • They solve problems affecting the Church members.
  • They hold joint crusades/rallies.
  • They also co-operate by providing Christian programmes in the mass media/resource materials.
  • They speak in one voice to condemn evil in society. (6×1=6 marks)

Thank you so much for the questions and answers. Be blessed

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