Learning Outcomes: By the end of the topic you should be able to:

a Define the terms ‘law’ ‘order’ and ‘justice’

b Describe the traditional African practices that promote law, order and justice. c Explain the Biblical teaching on law, order and justice.

d Identify and evaluate the need for law, order and justice in the society.

 e Explain the rights and duties of citizens

f Explain the causes and remedies of social disorder.

g Evaluate the role of Christians in the transformation of the society h Discuss church-state relationship


Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

  1. Define the following terms law, order and justice
  • State the types of law
  • State the types of statutory laws


  • Law, order, justice are essential for the survival of any society
  • Following laws leads to order and justice lack of following leads to disorder and injustice laws of Kenya are laid down in the constitution.

A. Law

Established rules by an authority to regulate human behaviour in the community Schools laws, religious laws, factory laws, hospital laws etc. laws differ from society to society. Laws are dynamic. Laws cover all aspects of life.

B. Order

Condition brought about by obedience to set rules or laws. Order leads to peaceful co – existence in the society. Where there is order, things are done systematically. The opposite of order is disorder.

Types of laws

  1. Non – legal laws – no court action e.g. school rules
  • Customary traditional laws – based on culture, social traditions. They have to agree with state laws. They are respected by state.
  • Statutory laws / legal laws – laws made by local council or national government and citizens are expected to obey them.

Types of statutory laws

a) Civil laws – made by parliament on issues such as taxes, labour, divorce etc

  • Criminal law – on crime / punishment
  • Constitutional law – matters of state and governance
  • Company law
  • Religious laws e.g. Islamic law ‘sharia’

C. Justice

 Treating others the way they deserve in relation to the law. Its administration of rightful dealings in a fair manner according to their actions; a just society follows rules and administers legal action to those who offend others or disobey rules. Justice means treating people the same way without discrimination.


Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

1. State the importance of law, order and justice

  1. They are essential to preserve harmony and protect people
  • Laws guide people and ensure people’s rights are protected.
  • They protect people’s property and enable people to live in harmony
  • They protect the consumer from exploitation
  • They safeguard religious freedom
  • Laws control power of those in authority and promote political stability
  • Provides stability, encouraging economic growth
  • Helps to control discontentment among people
  1. Helps implementation of taxes effectively
  • Provides / help in maintenance of security
  • Ensures human rights are upheld
  • Enables the government to protect its citizens from internal or external threats.

m) International law regulates relations between countries.



Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able: –

  1. Define the terms citizen, rights and duty
  • List the rights of citizens
  • State the duties/ responsibilities of citizens

Citizen – person who is a member of a state, kingdom, empire. A person who has full rights as a member of a country by birth, decent, registration, naturalization;

Rights – legal claims that one is entitled to from the government Duty – ones responsibility to the government.


  1. Right to life – to live securely
  • Right to education
  • Right to liberty / freedom e.g. one should not be imprisoned, detained, without trial. One is innocent until proven guilty
  • Right to protection of property
  • Right to own a family – right to marry and raise a family
  • Right to health
  • Freedom of movement

Right to freedom of association

  • Right to freedom of assembly
  1. Freedom of religion
  1. Right to own property
  1. Right to equality – non discrimination
  1. Protection of freedom of expression and speech (own opinions, ideas)

Children have rights e.g.

Right to life, education, parental care, health, protection from exploitation, right to identity etc

Duties of citizens (responsibilities)

  1. Pay taxes to the government
  • Respect the flag and national anthem
  • Respect those in authority
  • Respect the laws of the land
  • Register as a voter and voter in national elections
  • Be responsible at work
  • Participate in national development

Promote peace and harmony in the society

  • Report errant members of the society to law enforcement agents
  1. Protect the environmental – clean, plant trees, avoid poaching etc


 Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

1. State and explain the traditional African practices that promoted law, order and justice

Some of the practices that promote law, order and justice are

a) Punishment of offenders

People who committed offences such as stealing, murder, witchcraft were punished through death, curses, paying heavy fines etc. this promoted law, order, justice

b) Installation of rules, kings, chiefs, elders

They were installed to maintain law, order and to execute justice in their areas of jurisdiction

c) Administration of oaths

– Administered by specialists and are used as a method of establishing and maintaining law and order

d) Making of covenants

– Covenants were made if there was a conflict between two communities. They would promise to live in peace and harmony.

e) Observing of taboos and customary law

Taboos were prohibitions. Those who went against taboos were severely punished

  • The kinship system – defined how people related one to another
  • Rites of passage – ensured customs, laws were adhered to
  • Religious practices- such as praying, singing, sacrificing and giving of offerings had the effect of maintaining order.


Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: 1. Describe the biblical teachings on law, order and justice

God initiated Law, order, and justice.

  1. God’s creation is orderly. God desires order
  • Man was created with a conscience to know right from wrong sin has consequences or punishment. God does punish disobedience i.e. justice
  • God instituted the laws as part of his plan for salvation e.g. law of circumcision, Torah (10 commandments), circumcision of the heart, laws on what to eat etc.
  • God’s law governed kingship in Israel. National prosperity depended on a king’s ruler ship. Kings were to ensure law and order
  • In the New Testament John the Baptist urged people to observe the law (social justice).
  • Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is based on law, order and justice. There should be fair treatment for all people
  • Jesus said that the law of Moses was given to guide people
  • Christians should obey the law of the land and respect those in authority
  • The apostolic teachings stress the need for law, order, justice (1 Cro.14: 33)
  1. Christians should be orderly.
  1. The birth of Jesus was orderly. His ministry was also orderly hence should Christians.


Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

  1. State and explain the causes of social disorders
  • State the causes of discrimination
  • Explain the causes of crime
  • List the forms of punishment

Social disorder is a state of confusion or lack of order in the society


  1. Discrimination
  • Inequitable distribution of wealth, resources
  • Crime
  • Racism
  • Tribalism
  • Sexism


Discrimination is unfair treatment. Discrimination is on basis of

  • Race
  • Tribe
  • Sex / gender

People or a particular person is singled out and treated with disfavor or distaste. It is showing bias or prejudice.

Causes of discrimination

  1. Culture
  • Prejudice – bias original from opinions that have no known basis or supporting facts – stereotypes
  • Ignorance e.g. on HIV /AIDS
  • Social status – ones position in a society

Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources

– This is when riches of family, community, and nation are not fairly shared out due to Selfishness or poor planning. Some areas are marginalized.

Racism – unfair treatment of people because of their race

Tribalism – discrimination on basis of ethnic group

Crime – an offence against state, normally settled in court. Its antisocial behaviour causing disorder;

 Causes of crime (Why people commit crime)

  1. Poverty
  • Public mistrust for law enforces
  • Lack of parental guidance
  • Wide gap between the rich and the poor
  • Greed for power, money
  • Materialism
  • Drug and substance abuse


  • Discrimination against people because of gender
  • Women are discriminated in areas such as jobs, no promotion for women, oppression of women at home, cultural values demeaning the status of women, wife beating / men beating, female genital mutilation (FGM) early children marriages etc.

Remedies to social disorder

  1. Rehabilitation for drugs users / abusers
  • Punishment for offenders of crime

Forms of punishment

  • Imprisonment
  • Payment of fines
  • Corporal punishment
  • Probation
  • Being assigned community work
  • Being placed under house arrest
  • Learning in approved schools, Juvenile homes
  • Equitable distribution of national resources

 – Develop marginalized areas

– Create jobs

  • Campaign against drug abuse
  • The public to use hot lines to report crime to police
  • Preach against racism, tribalism, and preach equality, freedom and interaction with all people
  • People to be sensitized to appreciate and respect different ethnics groups

Promote national unity through education /cultural programmes

  • Creation of more national schools so as to have students from all backgrounds
  1. Encourage domestic tourism
  1. Enlighten women on their rights
  1. Employment on merit
  1. Rich countries to share wealth with the poor


Learning outcomes:  By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

  1. Define the term transformation
  • Describe Christian’s participation in social life
  • Describe Christian’s participation in political life
  • Describe Christian’s participation in economic life

Transformation is to completely change the attitude, character, and well being of the society

a) Christian participation in the social life

  • Christians are involved in the preaching of the gospel in many places in the country. They use print and electronic media to spread the gospel.
  • Christians have shown concern for the destitute and victims of violence in the society by building homes for them and providing them with food and clothing.
  • Christians run schools, vocational institutions, universities providing educational services
  • Christians offer medical services to the society
  • They speak openly against sexual immorality, murder, bribery, corruption, abortion etc.
  • They show compassion to those in need the poor, HIV / AIDS orphans, widows, widowers, aged etc.
  • They offer guidance and counselling to dysfunctional families (the pastors, those trained to do counselling – almost all pastors get a training in guidance and counselling)


b) Christians participation in the political life

  • Christians participate in the political life by advocating for fair distribution of wealth
  • They offer prayers for government, political leaders
  • They exercise their right by voting
  • They also participating in the political life by standing up for elections (Vying for elections)

c) Christian participation in economic life

  • Christians participate in economic life by paying taxes to the government
  • By contributing in collection of funds for construction of churches, schools, hospitals
  • They invest in business that promotes their own development as well as the development of the country.
  • They provide financial resources in order to assist others to start economic activities or self employment

They discourage business practices such as using faulty scales, hiking of prices cheating in business etc and encourage proper acquisition of wealth


The government and the church interact at various levels and in different areas

  1. Religious leaders give advice to the state
  • The church speaks against corruption, robbery, rape, abortion, vices which the government is fighting
  • The church is the conscience of the state
  • Both educate the citizens on the constitution and their rights
  • The church preaches peace, love, unity, order
  • The state needs support of the church in mobilizing citizens to adopt government policies
  • Both are involved in rehabilitation of prisoners
  • The church builds schools and other institutions that supplement government institutions.
  1. The church is involved in formulation of educational curriculum.

However the church differs with government on various issues such as

  1. Use of condoms (Some churches opposed to this)
  • Use of live bullets by the law enforces when curbing riots
  • Fight on corruption a thorn to the church since state leaders are involved
  • Issue of death penalty – church been fighting against death penalty to convicts

NB. The government lifted the death penalty as a form of punishment in the year 2009.

Revision questions

1. State ways in which Christians can promote peace/unity in the society

 2. Why should Christians take part in voting?

Revision questions

1.      1991 Q 49

          State the functions of the state authority

2.      1991 Q 50

        Explain how money economy has changed the traditional African concept of

         Bride wealth

3.     1993 Q 5a, c

        a)  Explain how Christians can contribute towards the maintenance of law and

              Order in the society

        c) Give the obstacles of effective maintenance of law and order.

4.    1994 Q 38

        Explain ways in which the church is helping in the maintenance of peace in Kenya  

5.     1995 Q 39

        State five ways in which Christians contribute to the maintenance of law and

         Order in Kenya.

6.    1996 Q 19

       Identify five causes of conflicts between parents and children in Kenya today.   (5marks)

7.    1996 Q 6a,c( pp 2)

      a)   Give reasons why some Christians are opposed to the use of capital punishment.                                                                                                                                      (8marks)

      c)   State ways in which Christians in Kenya help those who have been released from   prison.                                                                                                             (9marks)

8.    1997 Q 17

       Give five reasons why Kenyans are attracted to the Church                              (5marks)

9.     1997 Q 19

          State five ways in which Christians practice social justice                            (5marks)

10.    1997 Q 2b ( pp 2)

          b) Describe the obstacles that a Christian could encounter in trying to promote social justice

             in Kenya.                                                                                                       (12marks)

11.    1998 Q 17

        State five reasons why a preacher may be disliked by the society today         (5 marks)

12.    1998 Q 20

         Give five reasons why a Christian should not resort to strike action as a way of

    Presenting grievances                                                                                      (5 marks)

13.    1998 Q 2a,b ( pp 2)

         (b)          Explain the causes of conflict between the young and the old people in the  Church today                                                                                      (4 marks)

14.     1999 Q 19

          Identify five problems which have resulted from freedom of worship in Kenya Today                                                                                                              (5 marks)

15.    1999 Q 20

          Give reasons why Christians should obey the laws of their country              (5 marks)

16.    2000 Q 19

        What roles can Christians play in the national election?                                  (5marks)

17.    2001 Q 20

         Identify five ways through which a Christians can help reduce the practice of corruption Kenya.                                                                                                             (5marks)

18.   2002 Q 20

        Give five reasons why Christians should participate in the law reform Process in Kenya.                                                                                           (5marks)

19.    2002 Q 6a ( pp 2)

         a) Outline the steps the church is taking to reduce lawlessness in Kenya today.                                                                                                                                                        (12marks)

20.    2003 Q 20

         State five ways in which Christians in Kenya show respect for the state        (5marks)

21.   2004 Q 18

         List five ways through which the church is rehabilitating wrong doers in Kenya today.                                                                                                                                    (5marks)

22.   2004 Q 4c (pp 2)

          Give reasons why the church condemns injustice in Kenya today.               (7marks)

23.    2005 Q 18

          Give five reasons why Christians should vote during the general elections  (5marks). 

24.    2005 Q 16

         Identify five causes of conflict between the youth and the old people in the church                                                                                                                                      (5marks)

25.   2006 Q 6 (pp 2)

          (c)How is the church helping to reduce the rate of crime in Kenya?              (8 marks)

26.   2007 Q 3c

       (c) What life skills do Christians need to use in order to fight corruption in Kenya today?                                                                                                             (6 marks)

27.    2007 Q 4c

        (c)How can Christians assist the church leaders to perform their duties effectively?       (5 marks)                                                                                    

28.    2007 Q 6b, c (pp 2)

          (b)   Identify ways through which Christians promote justice in Kenya Today           (7 marks)                                                                       

         (c)          Give reasons why Christians in Kenya are against the death sentence                   (5 marks)                                                                                                  

29.    2008 Q 4c

             (c) How is the church promoting social justice in Kenya today?                (6marks)                             

30.   2008 Q 5c

         (c) State five ways in which Christians solve conflicts among themselves.  (5marks)

31.   2008 Q 6 (pp 2)

        a) Give six reasons why it is important to have laws in a country.                   (6 marks)

        b) Outline eight problems related to maintenance of law and order in Kenya today   (8 marks)                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

        c) Identify ways in which Christians in Kenya help those who have been released from prison                                                                                                              (6 marks)

32.    2010 Q 3c( pp 2)

        (c)      Why should Christians be discouraged from taking part is mob justice?          (6 marks)

33.      2010 Q 5c (pp 2)

(c)       Identify six ways in which the Church is helping to solve the problem of domestic violence in Kenya today.                                                                  (6 marks)

34.    2011 Q 6a, c

         a) Explain seven ways in which Christians can contribute towards the maintenance of law and order in the society.                                                  (7 marks)

        c)  Identify six obstacles to effective maintenance of law and order in Kenya today     (6 marks)

35.    2012 Q6b P2

                (b)  Give eight reasons why corruption is widespread in Kenya today.         (8 marks)


1991 Q49

  • Maintain law and order
  • Provide defense/security
  • Provide social services, roads, education, health and medical care
  • Provide leadership
  • Protect individual right and freedom
  • Promote international cooperation
  • Answerable to die people/should be accountable to the people
  • Legislate law to govern the people

1991 Q50

  • The bride wealth has become individualized. It is no longer shared by the family (extended family) of the bride/is sorely given to the bride’s father
  • Its no longer seen as token of appreciation/ gratitude but as a ‘price’
  • it is now paid on cash money not in form of animals/other kinds
  • Sometimes fixed according to status/ exploitation position of the girl
  • It has become a manifestation of greed/ exploitation by the bride’s father
  • It has become commercialized
  • The girl is viewed as an investment by her father/as a commodity which was bought by the husband

1993 Q5a, c

  • By taking it as their responsibility /obligation to obey the laws of the land.
  • By respecting/obeying the lawful authority
  • By condemning evil/injustice/violation of human rights in the society
  • By questioning /condemning oppressive/unjust laws/and systems
  • Keeping the laws of God /and by being Christ like. (if a Christian lived according to the laws of God then she /she is not break the natural law)
  • Being exemplary to others/ set examples by doing what is right/should practise what they preach.
  • Should be ready to forgive those who do wrong
  • By being peacemakers /by being ready to bring reconciliation in the society
  • Praying for peace/ justice to prevail in the community
  • By fighting against /trying to alleviate social evil: e g prostitution/delinquency/drunkenness/drug abuse/tribalism/sexism/racism etc.
  • Trying to alleviate suffering caused by poverty / disease /hunger.
  • Should be prepared to share what they have with others, (eg helping the poor and the needy)
  • Should provide guidance and counseling service; to those who need them
  • Create jobs /job opportunities for the unemployed.
  • Calling/fighting for justice in the community
  • Educating the people on their rights/ responsibilities
  • Speaking the truth as they see it with courage.
  • Helping the victims of the unjust systems/ rehabilitate the victims of unjust systems/ injustice/rehabilitate criminals /prisoners.


  • Increasing rate of crime especially in urban areas.
  • Political instability especially in some third world countries
  • Political insecurity leading to despotism / dictatorship/totalitarianism
  • Greed for power/wealth (some people are ready to use any means to acquire wealth and power)
  • High rate of unemployment which lead to idleness/crimes/desperation
  • Corruption which creates a situation where the custodians law leaders fail to discharge their duties/lack of impartiality by the authorities
  • Hypocrisy where leaders mislead the society, through propaganda.(they talk to peace and promote war/love and they sow hatred/unity and sow disunity
  • Poverty which lead to Magendo business robberies /murder.
  • All sorts of oppression discrimination (tribalism), racism/sexism /classism or. basis of age /religion. .
  • Unequal distribution of wealth/resources where the rich are becoming richer/poor poorer.
  • Permissiveness /breaking away from traditional norms  /customs (eg individualism /drug addition / premarital sex etc.

1994 Q38

  • Through preaching/peace, love and justice
  • Preaching equality of all people.
  • Condemning all kinds of discrimination and oppression.
  • Preaching reconciliation and playing reconciliation roles.
  • Providing social services e.g. education, medical, home; of the aged, orphans and homeless.
  • Condemning evil in the society.
  • Creating employment and providing necessary skills for job or self-employment.
  • Providing relief in cases of drought or famine, to the poor, giving bursaries
  • Organizing and conducting prayers for peace
  • By creating awareness/concretizing people on the importance of peace through and use of mass media

1996 Q 19

  • Age gap between the parents and  children, where parents fail to understand the children and children fail to understand the parents
  • Lack of concern by the parents to the needs and interests of their children
  • Unwillingness by the children to perform duties accept instruction by the parents
  • Children expecting too much from their parents and vice versa
  • Failure by parents to give  time/ spend time with their children because they are involved in other things/ guidance and counseling
  • Children getting too involved with their peer group and have place for parents
  • Failure by parents to command respect from their children because of their weakness or failures
  • Failure by parents to set good examples to their children/ poor role models
  • Extreme poverty which dehumanizes/ extreme wealth which may spoil some children- doing what they want
  • Some children are not informed about their responsibilities to the family and the community
  • Parents putting too much restriction on their children’s   freedom/ exercising too much control over the children / over protectiveness
  • Too much freedom given to the children by the parents the pressure/ laxity by the parents to their children
  • Marital problems by parents
  • Influence of foreign culture/ mass media etc.

1996 Q 6a, c (PP2)

  • It is against the human rights to take away an individual’s life.
    • God’s law forbids human beings form killings/ committing murder. (“You shall not kill”)
  • Capital punishment does not serve/ fulfill the purpose for which punishment is intended, i.e retribution/ warning/ reform/ discouragement from repeating the offence.
  • It is an attack on the human dignity of an individual
  • Human beings are made in the image/ likeness of God, so capital punishment is destroying then image of God in human beings
  • It is a criminal attack on another person in the eyes of Christians
  • It is God who gives life and only God has the right to take it.
  • The judge who pronounces capital punishment on the  accused person may be prejudiced/ unjust/ dishonest/ might make the wrong judgment
  • Human beings are imperfect/ they  cannot assess the responsibility of the offender with absolute accuracy/ God alone is accurate ( e.g person might be accused wrongly/ human beings are unable to assess the inner intentions of the offender.  How much evil was done).
  • God’s intention of  punishment is to bring repentance/ reform ( capital punishment denies an individual’s this opportunity
  • Those who execute punishment/ the offender/ their family/ suffer degradation
  • Deprive a family community of a member
  • It is irreversible                                                          ( 6 x 1 = 6 mks)
  • Visiting them so that they may feel wanted in the society / invite them to their homes
  • Pray for them
  • Preach the good news of salvation to them
  • Provide them with basic necessities (e.g shelter, food and clothing)
  • Show them love/ concern
  • Involve them in the community/ church activities
  • Provide them with guidance and counseling to help them and reform
  • Welcome them into the church
  • Help them to become self- reliant by helping them acquire employment/ survival skills for self/ job employment
  • Listen to them/ help them solve problems                 9 x 1= 9 mks

1997 Q17

  • being members  of  a church  gives the belonging/ identity
  • Some go to church as a form of leisure / routine/ habit
  • To worship  and join  others in worship
  • Some go to church to make friends / met friends/ socialize
  • Others go to church to look for material help for spiritual growth/ development and nurture.
  • To some, it  is prestigious to go church/ seek popularity/ recognition
  • To fulfill an obligation/ as a sense of duty
  • To seek comfort and consolation
  • To seek forgiveness and correction
  • To physical and spiritual healing
  • For guidance and counseling
  • To cover up their sins/ crimes/ wrong doing/ hypocrism
  • To seek God’s blessings
  • To provide good education for their  children/ get them  Christian schools
  • To follow the religion of their parents/ not to annoy their parents. 

                                                                                                             (5 mks)

1997 Q 19

  • By sharing  belongings and resources with those who dot have
  • Helping the poor and the needy/ orphans
  • Visiting the sick, prisoners,  bereaved, the oppressed and the depressed
  • Fulfilling their domestic obligations
  • Fulfilling their civic obligations
  • Provision of social services e.g. schools, hospitals  and orphanages
  • Fulfilling ecclesiastical obligations and responsibilities
  •  Praying for peace and justice
  • Pointing for  peace and justice
  • Pointing  out and  correcting evil in society
  • Calling for justice  and the rule of  law
  • Caring for the environment                                                    (5 x 1 = 5 mks)
  1. b (PP2)
    1. Opposition from the rich/Government –who will not be willing to help/ share their riches with the poor.
    1. Opposition from the powerful/those in power making positions-because they are not willing to share the power/power making positions with others.
    1. Greed/selfishness/corruption – resulting in grabbing exploitation of the poor/powerless.
    1. Political leanings/people belonging to a political party- are not willing to share power/wealth resources with those belonging to different political parties.
    1. Racism-people belonging to a certain race discriminating against others.
    1. Different religious/ faiths/denominations-are not willing to help people of other faiths/denominations.
    1. Sexism-where the men dominate/are not willing to share power with women.
    1. Age factor- Where the men dominate/are not willing to share power with women youth, as to them the youth are irresponsible/ inexperienced/the youth are not ready to share power/ responsibilities with the old because they are out of dead wood.
    1. The educated-who have no regard for the uneducated who they regard as ignorant.                                                                            (12 mks)

1998 Q 2b (PP2)

  • Church leadership – The young want to have say in church affairs/decision making
  • Church worship- the young may consider some forms of worship dull/out of date/they may want to introduce new forms of worship e.g dance.
  • Religious beliefs- some are considered outdated.
  • Church teachings- Failure of the young people to observe certain church teaching (e.g sex before marriage/love of the church leaders may be pretenders- therefore the youth lack role models.
  • Hypocrisy – some of the church leaders may be too autocratic/intolerant to the opinions of the young.
  • Lack of democracy – the church leaders may be too autocratic/intolerant to the opinions of the young.
  • Permissiveness in society/loss of Christian values
  • Family conflicts leading to loss of respect/confidence.
  • Loss of faith in God’s workshop/loss of patience.
  • Manner of dress-Some churches don’t accept modern fashions.     

                                                                                                            4 x2 =8mks

1999 Q 19

  • Rise of state church conflicts
  • Many churches have sprung up whose main aim is material gain
  • Leading to confusion due to different interpretations of the scripture/some Christians many five up their faith completely due to confusion.
  • Misuse of resources due to duplication of churches activities.
  • Open conflict between leaders and the public due to different modes of worship
  • Has led to mergence of cults which practice ungodly activities.      (5marks)

1999 Q 20

  • In order to maintain peace/harmony
  • To as to imitate Jesus Christ emulate Jesus
  • To promote justice in society
  • To be role models/live exemplary lives
  • Avoid punishment/avoid crimes
  • Its Christians duty to respect the authority.

2000 Q 19

  • By praying for fair/free and just /peaceful elections
  • Being employed at various levels in and out of polling stations
  • Being committed in playing different roles.
  • Being honest/not fearing intimidation/persecution
  • Casting one’s vote
  • Educating the masses on their civil rights/ obligations
  • Financing / assisting the government in facilitating smooth and fair elections.
  • Avoiding situations of confrontations with the government of the day


2002 Q 20

  • To exercise their democratic rights/ citizenship
  • To ensure that just laws are enact/ avoid
  • To ensure that quality leadership is achieved
  • It is service to humanity
  • To improve the quality of life
  • It is a sign of accountability
  • It shows a sense of unity in nation building/ collective responsibility
  • it leads/ helps develop the while persons
  • It is an opportunity to infuse Christians principles in the law e.g. freedom of worship.                                                                      (5 x 1 = 5 mks)

2002 Q 6a (PP2)

  • Church members obey the laws  of the  country
  • Educating people  on civil  rights
  • Participating  in law processes/ constitutional reform
  • Condemning evil practices in the society/ preaching against evil
  • Teaching church members responsible  parenthood/ citizenship/ morality
  • Disciplining deviant member  of the church
  • Rehabilitating law breakers
  • Providing material assistance to the  needy
  • Praying for peace/ love to prevail
  • Providing guidance and counseling services
  • Participating in National functions as a sign of unity/ solidarity
  • Paying taxes to support activities of the state
  • Initiating development projects/ provide vocational training
  • Providing job opportunities

2003 Q 20

  • Praying for the nation/ leaders
    • Observing national days e.g. Madaraka day
    • Obeying the laws of the country
    • Paying taxes
    • Working together on state matters
    • Participating in elections/ voting
    • Alleviating poverty
  • Contributing to harambees
  • Respecting the flag
  • Promoting  peace                                                                    (5 x  1 = 5 mks)

2004 Q 18

  • Accepting/ welcoming them as members of the  church
  • Involving them  in church activities  like choir
  • Preaching  to them
  • Visiting them
  • Building homes  where the rejected can  stay/ rehabilitation  centers
  • Providing guidance and counseling for them
  • Appealing/ asking their family members to accept  them
  • Providing  them  with  materials  supplies/ funds
  • Providing them  with jobs/ employ  them/  giving self income generating  projects
  • Providing  them with training/ skills for  self-  reliance  carpentry tailoring, masonry etc
  • Praying  them or for them/ intercede on their  behalf
  • Providing recreation activities to engage  them / cut  down  on idleness                                                                                                                             (5 marks)

2004 4c (PP2)

  • The church has moral responsibility/ duty to correct evil in society
  • It is a way of emulating Jesus Christ/ imitating
  • It is against God’s teachings / laws
  • To ensure fair distribution of human/ natural resources
  • In order to uplift human dignity / human rights
  • So as to create  peace/ harmony/ unity in society
  • To promote national development
  • To guard against God’s  judgment upon the nation

2005 Q 16

  • Mode of dressing language/ communication
  • Controversies  over the kind  of  music/ dance
  • Issue relating  on sex / marriage
  • Rigidity  in Biblical interpretations
  • Controversies over  observance of ritual/ church rules         (1 x 5 = 5 mks)

2005 Q 18

  • It is their constitutional right
  • In order to own their elected leaders/ identify with them
  • So as to remove oppressive  leaders/ government
  • In order to effect a peaceful  change/ transition
  • It is a demonstration of  obedience to earthly authorities
  • The elected  leaders are their direct representatives in parliament / civic authorities                                                                               (1 x 5 = 5 mks)

2006 Q 6c (PP2)

  • Providing guidance and counseling
  • Preaching about love for one another in the society
  • Rehabilitating law breakers
  • Providing jobs/ offering training opportunities to the people
  • Giving  loans to people to start/ run business
  • Providing recreational facilities/ organizing  recreational activities  for the youth
  • Reporting criminals to the law enforcement authorities
  • Disciplining deviant members  of the church
  • Participating in government  programmes established to fight crime(e.g. community  policing)
  • Obeying the laws of the country/ being role  models
  • Praying for peace/ harmony
  • Teaching responsible parenthood
  • Providing basic needs for the needy
  • Condemning evil practices in the society/ teaching against crime.

2007 Q 3c

  • Poverty
  • Corruption/greed/selfishness
  • Disobedience /rebellion
  • Inability to forgive others
  • Influence from media/foreign culture
  • Wrong choices/lack of vision/peer pressure
  • Unemployment
  • Permissiveness
  • Influence of drug and substance abuse
  • Poor role models
  • Lack of guidance and counseling

2007 Q 4c

  • Critical thinking
  • Creative thinking
  • Decision making
  • Conflict resolution
  • Tolerance
  • Assertiveness
  • Self-esteem
  • Self-awareness
  • Empathy
  • Effective communication                                           (6 x 1 = 6 marks)

2007 Q 6b, c (PP2)

  • Preaching to/teaching people to have fair dealing with one another
  • Living exemplary lives/role models
  • Encouraging the government/leaders to uphold the rule of law
  • Carrying our civic education for the citizens to know their rights and duties
  • Condemning acts of unfairness in society
  • Helping in the rehabilitation of the lawbreakers/offering guidance and counseling services
  • Praying for people to practice justice
  • Participating in law/constitutional making process
  • Assisting the needy to get job/offering them jobs
  • Asking those who have wrongly acquired wealth to return it/pay back
  • Using mass media to promote justice                                    (7 x 1 = 7 marks)
  • The law of God forbids killing
  • Death sentence is irreversible in case an innocent  person is killed
  • Life is sacred/belongs to God
  • Killing does not reform the offender
  • The offender’s right as human being is undermined as he/she is used as a means to deter others
  • It is against God’s principle of forgiveness
  • It undermines Christian virtue of love
  • The victim’s dependants/family are denied a chance to be with their loved one
  • It can be misused by those in power to instill fear/discourage opposing views/eliminate others                                               (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

2008 Q 4c

  • Providing education to the public on social justice/civic education.
  • By respecting/following the laws of the country as laid down by the government.
  • By providing shelter to the needy.
  • It preaches on social justice.
  • The church prays for social justice in the country.
  • The church gives food/clothing to the affected.
  • It advises the government on the need for the practice of justice in society.
  • The church condemns social injustice in society.     (6×1=6 marks)

2008 Q 5c

  • They pray over the issue/problem.
  • They offer guidance and counseling to the affected.
  • Paying visits/talking to the offender/fellowship.
  • By involving church leaders as arbitrators.
  • Forgiving the one who has wronged the other/asking for forgiveness.
  • Willingness by the offender to accept the mistakes made/accepting liability (confession).
  • Withdrawing some priviledges for a period of time so that one can reform.
  • By sharing meals/eating together.
  • Through shaking of hands/accepting a greeting.                   (5×1=5 marks)

2008 Q 6 (PP2)          

  • Laws safeguard people’s rights/citizen’s rights.
  • People’s property is protected under the law.
  • They protect the consumer from exploitation.
  • It allows/provides for economic development/growth.
  • Individuals are able to enjoy the freedom of worship.
  • The law acts as a check/measure of those in authority.
  • The law outlines how foreigners should be handled.
  • They control taxation/collection of revenue.
  • It enables the government to protect its citizens against oppression.
  • The law determines the type of punitive measures for a crime done/prevents crime.
  • It ensures political stability in a country/nation (order/peace/love/unity).
  • It outlines the relationship between different nations/countries.                                                                                                                              (6×1=6 marks)
  • Some legislators/parliamentarians do not observe the law thus serving as wrong role models.
  • There is a lot of unfairness/injustice when settling cases because of tribalism/ nepotism/ religious affiliation/gender.
  • Intimidation/people in high offices use their power to influence certain decisions regarding law breaking.
  • Economic inability makes the poor to resort to lawlessness to meet their needs/unequal distribution of resources.
  • Availability of dangerous weapons/guns in the wrong hands leads to insecurity/terrorism.
  • There are a few resources to cater for the ever growing population, thus leading to overcrowding/competition that overwhelms the established machinery.
  • People lack interest/do not care about others, hence do not report cases of lawlessness/permissiveness in society/drug abuse.
  • Bribery/corruption has destroyed the credibility of the government officials.
  • People have lost respect/trust for government machinery/have resigned to a life of hopelessness/fear of victimization.
  • Interference from the civil society/human rights groups/activitists who oppose government initiatives in maintenance of law and order.
  • Inadequate modern technology hampers maintenance of the law.
  • Inadequate skilled personnel to handle issues to do with law breaking.
  • People are not conversant with the laws of the country.
  • Greed for power/wealth.  Some people can go to any extent to acquire wealth even if it means breaking the law.                                         (8×1=8 marks)
  • Praying for them.
  • Visiting them so that they can feel wanted in society/invite them to their homes.
  • Preaching the good news of salvation to them.
  • Showing them care/concern.
  • Welcoming them into church.
  • Providing them with financial needs (food/shelter/clothing/medication).
  • Offering guidance and counselling to help them to reform.
  • Involving them in community/church activities.
  • By helping them to become self reliant by giving them jobs/survival skills.
  • Listening to them/help them to resolve their problems.
  • Counselling their families to accept/forgive them.               (6×1=6 marks)

2010 Q 3c (PP2)

  • It does not give room to reason.
    • It is impulse/based on emotions.
    • It can lead destruction of poverty/life/it is violent physical injuries.
    • It is unbiblical/it lacks love/against law of the Lord.
    • It can be fueled by lies/malice/incitement
    • The victim is denied a change of defending himself/herself
    • It is a form of relation/revenge
    • It does not give room for forgiveness/reconciliation/rehabilitation
  • It can lead to bitterness/regret/psychological suffering.      

       (6 x 1 = 6marks)

2010 Q 5c (PP2)

  • Offering guidance and counselling to couples who are affected.
    • Holding seminars/conferences for marriage couples.
    • Developing mass media programmes on family relationship.
    • Praying for families
    • Teaching on the need for love/respect/tolerance in marriage.
    • Members in their homes to encourage them.
    • Giving material assistance/employment to the needy in order to reduce tension.
    • Condemn all forms of violence.
    • Settling disputes among couples/children.                                        (6 x 1 = 6mks)

2011 Q 6a, c

  • By obeying the law of the land/ leading exemplary lives
  • By respecting the lawful authority
  • Through rehabilitating criminals
  • By condemning acts which violate human rights/ unjust laws
  • Through educating the mass on their rights and responsibilities
  • By sharing what they have with the needy
  • By praying for peace / the national leaders / citizens
  • By preaching on the importance of law and order/ peace
  • Forgiving others freely
  • Reporting criminals to the relevant authorities
  • Through reconciling the warring parties
  • Through guidance and counseling services
  • There is an increase in the rate of crime/ the law enforcement officers cannot cope with the work load
  • Due to unequal distribution of resources
  • Permissiveness in the society
  • Due to political instability/ incitement by politicians
  • Extreme poverty
  • Social discrimination
  • Some cultural beliefs practices hinders effective maintenance of law/ concealing information criminals
  • High rate of unemployment
  • Bribery/ corruption
  • Greed for material wealth
  • Inadequate modern equipment to combat crime
  • Delay in the delivery of justice to the offended
  • The citizens lack knowledge on the procedures for the effective maintenance of law and order.

2012 Q6b (PP2)

  • Unemployment cases which make an individual desperate to secure an employment chance by engaging in corrupt activities.
    • Desire for instant services make some people become correct.
    • Some people feel that they have not been adequately paid for work done hence engage in corrupt acts to compensate themselves.
    • Fear of arrest/punishment make law breakers to engage in corrupt deals.
    • Some people engage in corrupt deals in order to be served due to ignorance of their rights.
    • Lack of moral integrity by some people.
    • Greed makes some people to engage in corruption.
    • Due to tribal/ethnic affiliations.
    • There is lack-or efficient machinery to curb corrupt practices/absence.
    • The Judiciary is not able to deal with injustice/cases take to long to be


  • Some government agents abuse the power bestowed upon them
    • The belief of the common person that the government is n master and

therefore has to be corrupted before receiving services.

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