CO-OPERATION IN AFRICA
It refers to the way African countries relate to each other
This relation is manifested in the existence of organizations such as OAU and other regional organizations.
The earliest organization which was aimed at African Unity was referred to as PAN AFRICANISM.
The term pan Africanism is derived from two words Pan-which mean act Africanism referring to African Origin.
Pan – Africanism is defined as a belief in the uniqueness and spiritual unity of black people.
It also acknowledged their right to self alternation in Africa.
Pan-Africanism calls for treatment of all Africans with dignity as equals in all parts of the world movement is thus seen as the manifestation of African process just universal discrimination of the Black people.
Origin of Pan-Africanism is not traced in Africa. It has its origin in New World in the 19th Century.
Atlantic slave trade led to dispersal of black people over f American in the carribean.
Slave suffered untold suffering and misery. This made them to be conscious their occur and origin in Africa.
Mistreatment, discrimination and humiliation the black people underwent convined them that they could find true friendship, understanding and motherhood at home in Africa.
However Africa had been colonized by European powers at the start of the century.
Before black people in America and West Indies joined with the Africans pan Africanist movement as a vehicle to fight for their social, African and economic right.
REASONS FOR BEGINNING OF PAN AFRICANISM.
Realisation by Africans that they have close cultural factor as they have suffered similar experiences such as slavery and colonialism and the world they constitute the down trodden lot.
Desire by Africans to pull together for mutual support.
AIMS OF AN-AFRICANISM
- Strive towards the improvement of the living conditions of black people all over world.
- fight against colonialism which further enhanced the declaration of black people
- Fight European racism and thus counter the myth of European superiority which later used to subjugate the blacks.
- Take Measure to restore the dignity of the black people and liberate them the bondage of slavery.
- Fight the serious political economical and cultural disadvantages facing the black in the diaspora.
DEVELOPMENT OF PAN-AFRICANSM
Many Negroes passively accepted their position as the bottom dogs and as a race created to serve others in a world dominated by the whites. They were homeless by slave trade and slavery. They were viewed as inferior people because of their colour.
There were many developments mainly economic development which led to introduction of machines.
These machines changed the mode of production whereby human labour from slaves was replaced by machines rendered slaves to be redundant and thus a burden to their owners who freed them.
British began anti-slave trade and anti-slavery campaigns in 1807 and 1833.
There was also American civil war which was caused by the issue of slave trade and slavery.
Negroes received western education as a new spirit among the blackmen in the new world grew.
They travelled widely and wrote about their plight in their own newspapers like BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, DR. W.E.B DUBOIS, MARCUS GARVERY, and GEORGE PADMORE.
The earliest pan- Africanists from Africa included J.E.K. Aggrey from gold coast (Ghana) and wilmost blyden from Liberia.
D.R W.E.B DU BOIS was born in USA in 1868. He was one of the founders of the national association for the advancement of coloured peoples (NAACP), he was a scholar who authored several works in politics and novels and edited the association’s journal.
This association championed the struggle for Negroes civil rights in America.
THE PAN AFRICAN CONGRESSES
First pan Africanist congress, in London, 1900.
Was held in London in 1900
It was sponsored by a Trinidad lawyer called Henry Sylvester Williams. Was at the conference that Dr. E. B Dubois was first introduced to Africanism.
Made his famous statement “The problem of the 20th Century is the problem colourline”
Obejctives of the First Pan African Congress`
Bring people of African origin in all parts of the world together and thereby as a forum through which they could protest against European congression against blacsk.
Appeal to an end to European colonization and exploriation of Africa. For ways of establishing better relations between the causican and African races.
Initiate a movement for securing to all Africans in and outside Africa fall rights and to promote their economic rights.
Appeal to missionaries and philontrhopist in Britain to protect African against aggression by the colonizers.
To address the living standards and conditions of Africans (blacks) in different parts of the world and more so black in South Africa and Condem in human treatment.
This congress, the quotation of South Africa and Rhodesia was discussed and congress condemned mistreatment of blacks in this countries. Set up upon Africanist association and journal.
However, this conference laid the foundation for future saidarity meetings and sowed the seed of togetherness of the black people.
Second Pan-Africanst Congress (Paris, 1919)
It was convened under the leadership of Dr. W.E.B de Bois.
It was held when the peace conference ending the World War I was taking race in Parts in 1919.
It Amied at presenting the grievances of people of African origin before the delegates to the peace conference.
This congress made some recommendations
- The need for international laws to protect the black people.
- African land to be held in trust.
- The prevention of exploitation by foreign campanies.
- The right of Africans to be educated.
- Africans to participate in their government as fast as their development permitted.
Third Pan Africanist Congress (Longon, Paris And Bruses, 1921)
This congress was held in three sessions, London, Brassser and Paris.
London session was attended by 41 Africans, 35 Americans coloureds, West Indians and 24 Africans who were living in Europe at that time.
It was also under the pationage of Dubois.
Main demand was establishment of political organizations among suprressed black peoples.
The congress emphasized international and interracial harmony and democracy.
The Fourth Pan- Africna Congress (London And Lisbon, 1923)
It was head in London and Lisbon.
Reiterated the earlier resolutions and also demanded that black people treated like human beings.
Fifthe Pan – African Congress (New York 1927)
Boi was once again the main figure in the congress in issue discussed was the attitude of the communist towards pan-African’s communist tried to discredit Da Bois and Marcus Garvey after they led to central both men.
After the fifth Pan African congress, Pan – Africanism ceased for almost twenty years when a new star on Pan Africanism came into the scene name was John Padniore.
However, up to 1945, the movement was not active on the African continent.
The Sixth Pan-African Congress, Manchester, 1945
In 1944, 13 organisations representing students welfare and political grouping formed the pan-african federation among them, George padmore, C.L.R. Wallace Johnson and jomo Kenyatta.
The participants included du bois(west indies), jomo Kenyatta(Kenya), kwame Nkrumah(Ghana), George padmore(Trinidad), peter Abrahams(south Africa), otto mackonnel from west africa and magnus Williams(Nigeria) represented DR. nnamdi azikiwe.
- It addressed itself to the problems facing Africa.
- It was dominated by Africans.
- The trade unions from Sierra Leone, Nigeria, gold coast, Gambia, West Indies were represented making it a mass movement.
- It was more vocal and radical.it expressed the hope that before long the peoples of asia and Africa would have broken their chains of colonialism
Reasons Why the Movemetnt Had Not Established Itself in the African Continet Before 1945
- There were very few African representatives and the few who existed were their students aborad or in exile.
- Divide and rule policy of European powers-this policy hindered the unity of Africans.
- The colonial authrorities did not allow Africans to organize movements that were opposed to colonia rule.
- Lack of contact and communication between Africans in French, Britain, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese colonies. Africans in each colony were concerened with issues that were of particular interest to them.
- There was little attention given to the movement by two independent African countries namely Ethiopia and Liberia. The two were pre-occupied with their own internal problems.
Example i) Ethiopia was trying to consolidate the Nation after the death of Menelic II.
ii) Liberia was still under considerable influence from U.S.A.
- The French policy of assimilation blind folded the Africans who were given partical rights and thus strove to acuire French citizenship.
- in the African continent, there were more pressing problem such as land alienation.
- Lack of suitable venue to be held conferences on African soft until when Ghana gained independence and provided one.
PAN – AFRICANSISM AFTER 1945
Pan Africanism activities increased in Africa after 1945. The activities increased because of:
I) Change of international opinion about colonialism of the World War II.
ii) The inspiration of colonized African counties by India independence in1947, Burma 1948 and Ghana 1957.
iii) The support from trade unions and Nationalistic movements formed in Africa
- Encouragement from UNO which supported the ideas of equality of all human races regardless of race.
- Attainment of Ghana’s independence which provided abuse for holding conferences on AFRICAN SOIL.
NOTE. IN 1958, a conference was held in Accra Ghana.
In 1960, a second conference was held in Addis Ababa Ethiopia here differences emerged among African leaders.
Some former French colonies formed the Brazzaville group and were less critical of their colonial masters. They wanted continued political links with them.
Anglo-phone countries formed the Casablanca group which adopted a militant attitude towards all the Western powers.
By 1963, these differences had reduced
Another conference was held in Addis Ababa in 1963. it was attended by 32 African states.
At this conference OAU was born. It was to reflect the ideals and aspiration of Pan – Africanismm.
PERFROMANCE OF PAN AFRICANISM
- The movement enlightedned black people all over the World and created awareness in them about their suffering. Turned into active nationalism and struggle for independence clonised Africa.
- It was first initiatives that provided a forum for black people to voice their grievances and discuss internal and external problems.
- Natured the spirit of solidarity among black people.
- Encourage co-operation among African leaders and states towards organization.
- Movement laid the foundation for the interet in research on African culture, story, music, religion, medicine etc.
- Africanism was seen in action during the Ethiopian crisis in 1935. Solini invaded Ethiopia and this sparked protest among blacks all over world against Italy. However, Italy lost the war.
- Aspiration of Pan-Africanism reached its political goal in 1963, when it established the organization of African unity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
CHALLENGES FACED BY PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENT
- Movement lacked adequate funds to run its operations.
- Movement failed to fully resolve the differences that arose among the independence African countries that emerged between the French speaking countries and the Anglophones.
- Did not have a base in Africa since most African countries were still under colonial rule.
- The were sharp differences between extremist and moderate e.g Bubois Booker T. Washington.
- Economic empowerment of African states was not achieved as most of them remained dependent on their colonial masters for economic support.
THE ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY AND FORMATION
Organization owes its origin to Pan- Africansim movement and was born in May 1963, 30 out of 32 independent African states met in Adis Ababa Ethiopia.
Among the 32 indpendant African states which were at present were Morroco and Togo,
It was during this meeting that the leaders agreed to form a continous body among the leading stesmann present were
Julius Nyerere (Tanzania)
Kwameh Nkrumah (Ghana)
Haile selassie (Ethiopia)
Ghana and Uganda supported a union government African.
However, the other African staes were prepared to accept association of states.
African leaders drew up a charter on 25th May 1963 and signed the OAU charter.
African states that had not yet gained independence sense observers they included Kenya which becomes a member in 1964.
Formation of OAU saw the dissolution of all the previous groupings Brazzaville and casoblanca groups.
AIMS OF OAU
- Promote the unity and solidarity of the African states.
- Co-ordinate and intensify the members collaboration and efforts to achieve a better life for the people of Africa.
- Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states
- Dedicate all forms of colonialism from the continent of Africa especially in Portuguese Africa, Namibia and South Africa.
- Avoid interfering in the internal affairs of member stats and to recognize the sovereignty and equality of all African and Malagasy states.
- Promote international co-operation having due regard to the charter of the UN and universal declaration of human rights.
- Hold – non- Alignment in African relation with the rest of the world.
This charter was drawn in 1963 and signed by 30 heads of states.
It contained 33 Articles which outlined the right and duties of the organization
Article One: Established the heads of states assembly
Article two: Outlined the aims and purpose of the organization.
Article three: Points out the purposes stated in Article two, that is to adhere to
Sovereignty equality Non – interference and condemnation of political
Article Four: Outlined OAU membership i.e each sovereign African states was entitled
Article five: Gave all members states equal right and opportunities.
Article Six: Committed all members’ states to pledge and observe the principles of the organization.
Article Seven: Established four principles organization which are:-
- The assembly of head of states and government
- Council of Ministers.
- General secretariat
- Commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration
Article 8 – 11: Spelt the function of the assembly of heads of states and governments as supreme organs.
Article 12 – 15: Created the council of ministers and spelt out its functions
Article 16 0 18: Created the general secretariat headed by the secretariat general.
Article 19: Established the commission of meditation, conciliation and arbitration of the organization.
Article 20 – 22: Set out specialized commission in the areas of co-operation as outlined in Article number 2(two).
Article 23: Made the OAU budget as drawn by the secretary general. It was approved by the council of minister. Member states paid contribution according to assessment scale. No member state was allowed to pay 20% of the total budget.
Article 24 – 25: Dealt with the preparation of the charter text in English, French and other African languages. These are rectified with a two third majority.
Article 26: Provided for rectification and registration with the UNO
Article 27: Stipulated that the interpretation of the charter be by the third majority of the assembly.
Article 28: Spelt out the procedure of the admission with the OAU by independent African states which is decided by a simple majority of the assembly.
Article 29: Specified the working language of the organization as French, English and if possible any other Africa language.
Article 30: Authorized the secretary General to receive gifts and donations on behalf of the organization provided that this was approval by the council of ministers.
Article 31: Provided for the privileges and immunities of the secretariat staff waiting for member states as decided by the council of ministers.
Article 32: Stipulated the conditions for leaving the organization. If a member state wished to leave the organization was to give a one year notice formerly and it then withdrew the following year.
Article 33: Established the amendment of the charter on a written request by a member state after a year notice.
THE STRUCTURE OF O.A.U
The effects it objectives and purposes the OAU’s charter provided for the establishment of various organs. These organs were:-
- The assembly of Heads of states and governments
- The council of Ministers.
- The General secretariat.
- The commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration.
The assembly of Heads of states and Government
It was the supreme organ of O.A.U
Met once a year although it could hold extra ordinary sessions to discuss the matters and issues affecting the continent
Members of the assembly had equal voting rights, thus each state had vote.
Elected a chairman yearly from among the head of states and government and the head of states and government conference used to hold on relational basis various countries.
Head of state of the hosting state automatically became chairman of it.
However this was changed in 1982 over the issue of whether Colonel Muamar Gadafi of Libya was eleigible to head OAU.
Result was many African leaders boycotted the meeting which aborted due to lack of quorum.
Impact was president Moi of Kenya was chairman for two terms 1983.
1983 it was agreed that all OAU summit meeting would be held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
OAU COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
It Consisted of all foreign ministers of OAU member states.
Performed the following functions:
- Prepared the Agenda for the meetings of the heads of states and governments.
- It implementes the decision passed by heads of states and government.
- Prepared the OAU budgets for approval by head of states and governments.
The council met twice yearly but again extra ordinary sessions could be led to discuss urgent and important matters.
The council meetings preceded those of the Assembly of the Heads of States governments and each.Minister has one vote.
THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT
It was headed by the secretary General who Was elected for a four year term of office and Could offer himself or herself for re-election if he/she wished.
It did the day to day work of OAU
Its headquarters was at Addis Ababa.
COMMISSION FOR MEDICATION, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION
It was responsible for peaceful settlement of disputes including member of the 21 states.
OAU has also specialized commission and agencies which dealt with the more technical aspect of the organization.
PERFORMANCE OF O.A.U
In history OAU witnessed a number of achievement and failures.
ACHIEVEMENT OF O.A.U
- It greatest achievement was in area of liberation of Africa from colonialism. It made tremendous efforts to liberate some countries from colonial oppression.
- It stood firmly behind the African nationalist in south Africa, in their fight against apartheid.
- It appealed to the security council of united nations to stop member countries from selling arms and military hardware to south Africa.
- OAU mediated in border disputes e.g between Kenya and Somalia and between Chad and Nigera.
- Through its specialized Agencies OAU has promoted areas of transport and communication, postal and Telecommunications link e.g through URTNA (Union of Radio and Television Network of Africa)
- It managed to maintain peace and stability on the continent like in 1963 it broke a ceasefire between Algeria and morocco.
- It has contributed to economic development like African development bank.
- It has aweken and sensitized Africans on their common problems like desertification, external interference, dependency and over-reliance on one trade commodity.
- It has united the diverse countries of Africa with their defferences in ideology.
- Has promoted social and cultural heritage e.g All African games enabled African countries to meet and co-operate in sports.
- Through scientific and technical Research Agencies OAU has encouraged research into medical use of African herbs and has contributed to eradication of some livestock diseases like East Coast Fever.
- The OAU has encouraged regional economic co-operation as a start of achieving continental economic integration.
Example i) EAC (East African community)
- ii) COMESA(Common market for Eastern, South Africa)
ECOWAS (Economic community of West Africa)
FAILURES OF O.A.U
- It failed to effectively deal with the Congo crisis of 1964 which almost dealt it affected blow.
- The charter of OAU was silent of issues of democratic reforms, peace justice and freedom of expression.The result was that a large number of OAU leaders turned out to be military rulers and dicatetors. This led to instability and abuse of human rights in most member states.
- OAU failed to achieve total unity and peace in Africa. This disunity manifested itself in the form of conflicts between member states and divison on which liberation movement to support.
- The organization watched helplessly as handreds of thousands Tutsi and Hutu moderates were lailled in Rwanda Genocide.
- It failed to intervene in the cival war in Zaire when Rwanda and Uganda invaded and occupied vast pasts of that country.
CHALLENGES FACED BY O.A.U
- African countries have different forms of Government and ideologies, most states guard their independence jealously. They also lend to co-operate with their former colonial masters.
- OAU member’s states were also members of other regional or international organizations e.g common wealth, ECOWAS, EAC and COMESA.Sometimes the interest of these organization were in conflicts with those of OAU
- The large number of OAU states posed difficulties in co-coordinating and assembling all member states for the annual extra ordinary sessions.
- The super powers interfered massively in the affair of African States e.g Angola and Zaire.
- Boarder disputes between member countries e.g i) Between Somalia and Kenya, Libya and Sudan,Somalia and Ethiopia.
- Portioning of Africa through scramble divided the continent into colonial territories which led to different groupings. For example the France – Phone African states felt more united among them that the Anglo-phone states.This left a negative legacy which had to be fought in attempt to forge close ties among member states.
- Some heads of states were never in agreement and proved difficult to reconcile it manifested itself through policital assassination. OAU had to try and not let the situation get out of control.
- Membership was voluntary making it easy for members to join or withdrew at work.
- Military coups. It is estimated that over seventy African leader were overthrown in the first 25 years of independence beside many other aboritive coups. This coups interrupted OAU plans and prorgrammes.
- Lack of military force is another challenge OAU faced. OAU lacked a permanent army that could enforce maintaince of peace.
THE AFRICAN UNION.
The union was launched in Durban, South Africa on 9th July 2002 to replaced the OAU
It was also attended by Louis Farrakham and the Nation of Islam delegation representing black in the diaspora.
Thabo Mbeki was elected the chairman of the union.
Former Ivorian minister (foreign) Amara Essy was elected the secretary general.
He replaced Tanzania Salim Ahmed Salim who served OAU for 12 years.
AIMS OF THE AFRICAN UNION
- To uphold the sovereign equality and independence of its 53 members states.
- To promote peace, security and solidarity on the African continent.
- To promote and protect human and peoples right, consolidate democratic institutions and culture and ensure good governance and the rule of raw in the continent of Africa.
- To accelerate the process of implementing the treaty establishing the African economic community in order to promote the social economic development of Africa and to face more effectively the challenges pose by globalization.
- To Achieve greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples in African.
- To establish the necessary condition which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negotiations.
- To promote and defend issues of interest, the continent and its people.
- To encourage international co-operation taking due account of the charter of the United Nations and the universal declaration of Human rights.
- To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity in order to raise the saving standards of African peoples.
- To co-ordinate and harmonies the policies between the existing and future regional economic communities for gradual attainment of the objectives of the union.
- To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, particularly in science and technology.Its work with recount international partners in the eradication of preentable diseases and the promotion of health on the continent.
STRUCTURE OF THE AFRICAN UNION
The African union consists of the following organs
The execute council
The permanent representative committee
Specialized technical committee
The pan-African parliament
The economic, social and cultural council
The peace and Security Council
It consists of the heads of states of all member states.
It is the most important decisions making body of the union.
It meets annually and elects a chair person.
In this assembly decisions are made by consensus or two third majority.
FUNCTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY
i) It decides on common policies for the union
ii) Considers application for membership
iii) Adopts the budget.
iv) Direct the process of conflict resolution
v) Appoints judges for the court of justice.
THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
The council is made up of foreign affairs ministers of the member states.
The council is accountable to the Assembly.
Functiions of The Council
i) Prepares materials for the assembly to discuss and approve.
ii) Decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications.
THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE
It is composed of ambassadors to the African Union and has the responsibility of preparing the work for the executive council.
The commission is the secretariat of the union the chairman, a deputy and eight commissioners.
Functions of the Commission
i) Handles the day to day administrative issues of the union.
ii) Implements the decisions of the union.
iii) Co-ordinates AU activities and meetings.
iv) Receives application for membership.
v) Initiates proposals for consideration by other organs.
SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL COMMITTEES
It deals with monetary and financial issues, the rural economy, trade, immigration, industry and science and technology.
They are responsible for implementation of projects and programmes of the union they are:
- The committee of rural and agricultural matters
- The committee on the monetary and financial affairs.
- The committee of trade, customs and immigration matters.
- The committee on industry, science and technology, energy natural resources and environment.
- The committee on health, labour and social affair.
- The committee on transport, communication and tourism.
- The committee on education, culture and human resources.
THE PAN – AFRICAN PARLIAMENT
Consist of elected representative nominated from five regions of African union.
THE COURT OF JUSTICE
The court rules on human rights abuses in Africa in terms of a legal statute framework.
THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL COUNCIL
Performs an advisory functionsand Is composed of professional and cruel representatives.
Three financial institutions were set up under the African Union.
These institutions were to provide funding for projects and programmes.
- The African central bank
- The African monetary fund
- The African investment bank
PEACE AND SECURITY COUNCIL
This has 15 members responsible for monitoring and intervening in conflicts.
The council is a lerted by an early warning system as to any threat to security in the continent.
It is financed by a peace fund.
The council is advised by a council of elders and has an African force at its disposal.
This function of the council is outlined in Article 6 of AU charter.
Functions of Peace and Security Council
- Promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa.
- Early warning and preventive diplomacy.
- Peace making including the use of good officer, medication, conciliation and inquiry.
- Peace support operations and intervention, pursuant to article 4(h) and (J) of the constitutive act.
- Peace building and post conflict reconstruction
- Humanitarian action and disaster management.
- Any other function as may be decided by the assembly
THE AU CHARTER
The AU charter was signed by 55 heads of states and of states and governments of the member states of the former organization of African unity (OAU) on 9th July, 2002 in Durban South Africa.
Like the OAU charter, it is a lengthy document with 33 articles.
Article 1: Deals with definitions of key term in the charter.
Article 2: States the establishment of AU in accordance with the provisions of the constitute act.
Article 3: Outlines the objectives of the union
Article 4: Defines the organs of the union
Article 5: Defines the organs of the union
Article 6: Outlines the composition and functioning of the assembly.
Article 7: Stipulates the process of decision making by the Assembly.
Article 8: Outlines the rules of procedure of the Assembly.
Article 9: States the powers and functions of the Assembly.
Article 10: Gives the composition of the Executive council and outlines it procedures
Article 11 – 13: Stipulates the decision making process of the executive council
rules of procedures and functions.
Article 14 – 16: Outlines the establishment and composition of the specialized and
technical committee, giving their functions and organization.
Article 17: Establishes the Pan – African parliament and defines its composition,
powers, functions and organization.
Article 18: Establishes the court of justice, its statutes, composition and functions.
Article 19: Spells out the financial institution of the union.
Article 20: Deals with the establishment of a commission of the union to function as
It defines its composition, structure, functions and regulation as
determined by the assembly.
Article 21: Establishes the permanent representative committee and spells out its
Article 22: Establishes the economic, social and cultural council as an advisory organs and states that its composition, power and organization are to be determined by the assembly.
Article 23: Deals with the imposition of sanctions against member states.
Article 24: Identifies the headquarters of the union as, Adis Ababa in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Article 25: Defines the working languages of the union as, if possible African language, English, French and Portuguese.
Article 26: Empowers the court to deal with matter of interpretation arising from application on implementation of the charter.
Article 27: Deals with the signature, ratification and accession to the charter.
Article 28: Stipulates that the act shall enter into force 30 days after the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the member states of the AU.
Article 29 – 31: Outlines the procedure for membership, suspension and cessation of membership.
Article 32: Outlines the process of amendment and revision of the charter.
Article 33: Outlines the transitional arrangement and final provision in the transformation of OAU in the AU.
CHALLENGES FACING THE AU
a) Resolving the recurrent common conflicts among several African Nations.
UN secretary General Kofi Annan warned that if Africans wanted to follow the example of Europe after WWII and build a union, they would a union, they would have to resolve their conflicts.(African Union Sumit 2002).
b) Tackling the issue of regional powers.
This is where the powerful African countries like Nigeria and South Africa are afraid of using their own regional influence and concerned at any initiative that would weaken their sovereignty or ability to act independently.
c) Member Nations need to seriously and genuinely address issue of ethnic, religious and regional division which has been increasing rapidly in many of the member Nations of the AU.
d) Given that underlying reasons for insecurity include poverty and thus conflict over scarce resources, member states used to address the problem of insufficient institutional and constitutional structures to manage dispute peacefully.
e) There is an urgent need for remaining military leaders to allow for democratic representatives.
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
Formation of E.A.C
The community was formed to strengthen common market among Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
It was a culmination of efforts made since 1902 to promote economic co-operation for East African states.
This effort had seen the establishment of the East African High Commission in 1948.
The commission consisted of governors of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika.
It was followed by East African community services organization EACSO.
The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.
The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.
After the three East African sates become independent in the early 1960s.
It was clear that the leaders of the state did not care about a federation.
It was however, still very necessary that a form of co-operation among this states be formed.
In 1965, the Philip commission was set up to look into possibilities of such a co-operation.
The commission recommended the setting up of the East African co-operation which could replace EASCO.
This recommendation formed the basis of the treaty of Economic co-operation of the three East African States.
In 1967, Presidents Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) Milton Obote (Uganda) and Julius Nyerere Tanzania signed a treaty which established the East African Community.
This treaty came into effects on 1st December 1967.
MAJOR OBJECIVES OF THE TREATY
- To promote trade among the three East African countries, that was now independent.
- To provide common services in areas such as railways, habours, post and Telecommunication.
- To provide for free trade of goods provided within East Africa. A common currency was introduced by East African currency board.
- Provide a wider and more secure market for good produced in the region
- To facilitate free movement of people.
- To enable and strengthen closer ties and understanding between the member states.
- To help bring economic balance between the states and equally share the former EACSO assets.
- To establish similar custom tariffs and duties 10 non member states.
- To enhance self – sufficiency, self reliance and full independence from the rest of the world to avoid being trodden upon.
ORGANISATION OF EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
To facilitate its organization the following structures and institutions were set up.
The East African Main Institutions
The East African community had special institutions which were established by the 1967 treaty.These institutions were charged with co-ordination of various activities in the community.
The institutions were:-
i) The East African authority
ii) The East African legislative assembly
iii) The common market tribunal
- The councils
- The central secretariat
- The court of appeal
THE EAST AFRICAN AUTHORITY
This was the supreme authority
It consisted of the three Heads of states
There main duty was to decide of major issues affecting the countries.
THE EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
This assembly was charged with making of laws concerning the services provided by the community.
It had 36 member, three of whom were ministers, one secretary general and members chosen from the three states.
THE COMMON MARKET TRIBUNAL
This was a tribunal to settle trade disputes between the partner states.
The councils were five
Namely i) Finance
iii) Common market
iv) Economic consultative
- Planning and research and social council
Each council had its own responsibility
THE CENTRAL SECRETARIAT
To- co-ordinate the work of these councils, a central secretariat was set up in Arusha, Tanzania.
The secretariat was responsible for seeing that the common market council succession was carried out.
It was headed by a secretary General.
THE COURT OF APPEAL
The court of appeal for East Africa was established in 1951.
It was to hear appeal from the courts in three member states.
The East African industrial court was a staff tribunal.
THE EAST AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK ( EADB)
Another important organ of the East African community was the East Africna development Bank (E.A.D.B) which had its headquarters in Kampala.
The bank was established to promote balanced industrial development.
Objectives of the East African Development Bank
- Provide financial and technical assistance to partner states.
- Give priorities to industrial development in relatively less developed partner states.
- Fiannce the projects designed to make the economies of partner states complementary in the industrial field.
- Supplement the activities of National development by joint financing, specifically using the agencies as channel for financing specific projects.
- Co-operate with other National or international organs private or public.
- Underake ‘such other activities and provide such other services as may advance the objectives of the Bank.
- Establish similar custom tariff and duties to non member states.
EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY CORPORATION.
Four East African community corporations set up in addition to the council.
i) East African Railway corporations were set up with its headquarters in Nairobi
ii) The East African habours corporation with its headquarter in Dar – es salaam.
iii) The East African post and Telecommunication corporation with the East African airways corporation with it headquarters in Nairobi.
Facilities Which Came Under Direct Control On the Community
a) The East African National resources research council. the council supervised research work from centres such as the;Fresh water fisheries (Jinja), Marine fisheries (Zanzibar), Agriculture and forestry research (Nairobi) and Vetinary research Nairobi.
b) The East African Board. The Board worked the East African customs and exercise Department to ensure that the tax systems in the three states were in line with one another and gave help and advice in tax matters.
c) The East African Research council which co-ordianted works on a variety of medical problems – leprosy, sleeping sickness, tuberculosis and viral diseases.
d) The East African literature Bureau in Nairobi which promoted the production and sale of books. It encouraged more Africans to write books.
THE TABLE SHOWS THE EAC CORPORATIONS
E. A Railway corporation Nairobi
E. A Habours corporation Dar-es-Salaam
E.A Post and Telecommunication corporation Kampala
E.A Customs and exercise Mombasa
E.A Development Bank Kampala
E.A income tax Nairobi
E.A Agriculture, veterinary and forest Research Muguga (Kenya)
E.A Amani institute (scientific Research) Amani (Tanzania)
E.A Fisheries Research Jinja
E.A Literature Bureau Nairobi
E.A Metrological Department Nairobi
E.A Civil Aviation Directorate Nairobi
E.A Marine Fisheries Zanzibar
Court of Appeal for East Africa Nairobi
E.A industrial Research Nairobi
E.A Tropical Pesticides Research Centre Arusha
E.A Airways Nairobi
CHALLENGES OF EAC UP TO 1977
1. Uneven economic development, Uganda and Tanzania believed that Kenya benefit more from the EAC than them.
2. National pride and interest:-National interests of the respective countries were given priority to regional interest (each member was proud of her own independence IT favoured railway Kamplala k trade transport.
3. Ideological difference,Tanzania was committed to socialists ideologists while Kenya and Uganda pursued capitalist ideologies.
4. Political Instability in Uganda:In January 1971 Idi Amin staged a military coup against Milton Obote there followed a period of political instability in Uganda.
5. Personality differences, President Nyere and Idi Amin became bitter enemies because Obote was given refugee in Tanzania after he was overthrown by Amin.
6. In adequate compensatory and corrective measures: There was financial constraint resulting from failure of member states to remit their contribution to East African Community.
7. Use of different currencies made transactions difficult
8. Personal ambitions: Each leader of the member states wanted to appear as the most powerful
9. Boundary closures:This was between Tanzania and Uganda during the 1978 – 1979 war. Tanzania also closed it boarder with Kenya.
10.Kenya complained that its Nationals working in Tanzania were being harassed.
Tanzania didn’t act on the complain as a result Kenya pulled her Nationals and established her own state organization.
11. From 1975 Kenya and Tanzania began to nationalize the asset of EAC that were within their boarder.
REBIRTH OF THE EAC
In 1993, however the three East African leaders (president Moi of Kenya, Museveni of Uganda, and Mwingi of Tanzania) met to discuss the possible revival of the community.
On 30th November 1993, the three leaders signed an agreement in Arusha, Tanzania, reviving the East African community.
They emphasized the need for free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the three member states.
This was coupled with common services and joint policies for transport, communication, security, education, science and research would enhance regional co-operation.
During the second summit of 3 heads of states in Arusha on 29th April 197 it was divided that a process of treaty making begin that would involve further negotiation among the member states including the public.
The result was the establishment of East African community which was signed in Arusha on the 30th November 1999.
It became operational on the 7th July 2000 and the new regional organization came into being.
On 15th January 2001, the summit of the new East African community was held in Arusha.
It signed various protocols relating to the rules for the admission of other countries to the E.A.C
Thereafter the community was formerly launched.
AIMS OIF THE EAST AFRICA COMMUNITY
- Harmonization of fiscal and monetary policies.
- Encourage free movement of capital.
- Trade liberalization and development e.g by removal of internal tarrifs to member states.
- Co-operation in agriculture and food security.
- Development of areas of common economic interest e.g Lake Victoria and it basin.
- Development of infrastructure and supportive services e.g roads, railway, telecommunications etc.
- Develop adequate and reliable energy supply in the region.
- Development of human resources, science and technology.
- Development in social sector issue e.g health, culture and sport.
- Encourage free movement of persons be easing of boarder crossings.
- Promote co-operation in legal and judicial affairs.
- Strengthen political co-operation so as to attain peace and relation with other regional and international organizations.
ORGANISATION OF THE EAC
The East African community has several organizations and institutions.
These a) Summit
b) Council of ministers
c) The co-coordinating committees
d) Sect oral committees.
e) The East African court of Justice
f) The East African legislative Assembly.
g) The secretariat.
It comprises heads of governments of member states which meets at least once every year but may hold extra-ordinary meetings on the request of any member of the summit.
There is office of the chairperson and it’s rotational among the member states.
The main function of the summit is to give general direction toward the realization of community goals.
Decisions are made by consensus.
THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
It is made up of ministers from the member states that are responsible for regional co-operation.
The council meets twice a year but a member state can request for an extraordinary council meeting.
The council is the main decision making institution.
It also implements the decision and directives of the summit and submits annual report.
It also prepares agenda for the summit.
THE CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE
It comprises permanent secretaries responsible for regional co-operation.
It is subject to the direction of the council.
It meets at least twice a ear.
It co-ordinates the activities of the secretarial committees.
Established by the council on the recommendations of the respective coordinating committees.
They meet as often as is necessary.
They are responsible for the preparation of a comprehensive implementation of the programme of the community in respect to it sector.
THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE
The court comprises of 6 judges two from each member states who are appointed by the summit.
The court is based in Arusha Tanzania.
It main function is to ensure the adherence to the law in the interpretation, application of and compliance with the East African community treaty
THE EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE
It has 27 elected members and 5 ex official members consisting of the minister responsible for regional co-operation from the partner state and the secretary – General and the counsel to the community.
There is the speaker of the Assembly, committee of the Assembly and cleric to the Assembly.
The Assembly provides a democratic forum for debate.
It also has a watch dog function and plays a role in the legislative process.
It is headed by the secretary – General who is appointed by the summit on rotation basis serves for a 5year period.
The secretary General is the chief executive officer of the community the accounting officer and the secretary of the summit.
He carries out any duties given to him by the council from time to time.
The secretariat in the executive arm of the community.
It ensures that regulations and directives adopted by the council are properly implemented.
OTHER AUTONOMOUS INSTITTION OF EAC
The autonomous institutions of the EAC which assist it in effective operation are
- Lake Victoria Development programme
- The East African Development Bank(EADB)
- Lake Victoria fisheries organization
- The inter university council for East Africa (IUCA).
E.A.C CUSTOMS UNION
The treaty for establishment of the East African community provides that a custom union shall be the first stage in the process of economic integration.
Therefore real economic integration was only to commence with thee coming into the being of the customs union.
The treaty provides that the customs union shall be followed by a common market, then a monetary union and finally a political federation.
The objective of establishing a customs union is formation of a single custom territory to enable partner states to enjoy economies of scale with a view to supporting the process of faster economic union, EAC will create a single market of over 90 million people (2002) and a combined GDP of a round USA dollars 30 brailing, besides assisting to level the playing for the regions producers by imposing uniform competition policy and law.
The customs union became operational in February 2005.
There is now a common regime of taxes being followed on all goods among member states.
FEATURES OF CUSTOMS UNION.
A Common set of import duty rates applied on goods from third world countries.
Duty free and quota free movement of tradable goods among its constituent custom territories.
A common set of customs, rules and procedures.
A structure for collective administration of the custom union
A common trade policy with non memer states.
CHALLENGES FACING THE NEW EAC.
a) Member states give more preference to their internal matters at the expense of community affair. This has slaved down the process of integration.
b) Uneven levels of economic development have given Kenya on undue advantage in the competition. Fr example Kenyan manufactured goods are more competitive.
c) Member countries also belong to other regional organization such as COMESA, SADC leading to divided loyalty.
d) Insecurity along the common boraders caused by banditary, cattle rustlers etc has in some cases several relations between member states e.g the insecurity along Kenya Uganda border.
e) Member states produce similar goods making it difficult for them to trade with each other.
f) The East African community members do no have a common currency. Besides the currencieces e.g the Dollar, sterling pound, Euro etc This has hindered trade among the countries.
g) Poor transport and communication Network among the member countires which hinders the movement of people and goods.
h) Conflicts over the exploitation of common natural resources e.g the use of Lake Victoria resources (Migingo Island).
ECONOMIC COMMINTY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS)
It began in 1958 when Ghana and Guinea formed a political union.
The two countries were joined by Mali.
In 1960, other Nations of West Africa began making moves along way of limited economic co-operation from 1963.
For example there was an agreement between Gambia and Senegal on currency matters, air service and trade.
There was also Niger River commission between Mali, Upper Bolta (Burkina Faso) and Niger on the use of the Niger River.
Other similar organization were the Lake Chad Basin commission between Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and the Senegal commission between Senegal, Guinea, Mali and Mauritania.
In 1972, Togo and Nigeria signed a bilateral agreement after some quite diplomacy and consultations; the way was cleared for a meeting of the different West African Nation in 1974.
All the arrangement was preparatory steps towards the formation of ECOWAS which was formerly established with the signing of the treaty of Longos on 28th May, 1975.
Its operations began in November 1976.
Originally there were fifteen (15) signatories. Te community now has seventeen (17) (members, Cape Verde having joined in 1977.
MEMBER STATES OF ECOWAS
a) Benin j) Senegal
b) Liberia k) Guinea
c) Mali i) Sierra – Leone
d) Burkina Faso m) Mauritania
e) Cape Verde n) Gambia
f) Togo o) Ghana
g) Guinea Bissau p) Niger
h) Nigeria q) Ivory Coast.
AIMS OF THE ECOWAS
- To foster economic co-operation among member states in various fields.
- To ensure free movement of goods, within the area by removing trade barrier among member states.
- To achieve economic independence for its members.
- To develop Agriculture, commence and industry as well as other sectors of the economy.
- To set up technical and specialized commission of mutual interest.
- To enhance co-operation in communication and cultural matters
- To improve the living standards of the people in member states.
- To promote and improve good relation between member states.
ORGANISATION OF ECOWAS
The ECOWAS in order to streamline its operations put up the following structures in it organization.
- Authority of Heads of States and Government
- Council of Ministers.
- The Tribunal
- Executive secretarial.
AUTHORITY OF HEADS OF STATES AND GOVERNMENT
These is the supreme organ of ECOWAS and It meets once year, although extra ordinary session may be held in need arises.
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
It is composed of one minister from each member states and responsible for the general management of the organization.
It is charged with the responsibility of interpreting the treaty.
It settles disputes between the member states.
It is based in Lagos, Nigeria
It is headed by an executive secretary who serves for a four year term.
It is charged with the day to day administration of the organization and implementation of policies.
There are four specialized commission dealing with the following matters:
i) Trade, customs, tariffs, immigration and monetary affairs.
ii) Industry, Agriculture and Natural resources
iii) Transport, communication and Energy
iv) Social and cultural affair.
PERFORMANCE OF ECOWAS
- Politically, it has enabled the head of states to meet regularly for consultation of issues concerning the region.
- Members have benefited economically from the co-operation, for example, Availing Nigerian petroleum and petroleum and petroleum products to The members at cheaper rate than in the open market.
- It has enhanced the movement of goods and labour within the region achieving success in the field of customs.
- As achieved success in the field of mutual defense and has actively participated in resolving conflicts in the region, for example, and intervened in the civil wars in sierra – Leone and Liberia.
- The organization has enhanced cultural exchanges among the member states.
- Progress has been made in the field of transport, communications, Agriculture and industry in the region.
- ECOWAS has set up a development fund.
CHALLENGES TO ECOWAS
- Influx of workers from less developed areas to move developed states within the organization.For example, many Ghanaians went to Nigeria expecting to find better opportunities. But following complaints from its citizens, the Nigerians government expelled thousands of Ghanaians and other foreign workers in 1983.
- The closure of boarders between some member states has also been a problem e.g Ghana and Togo as well as Burkina Faso and Mali
- Foreign interference especially through the presence of Israel and French Soldiers in cote de-ivore is another problem
- Ideological differences between various leaders have prompted suspicion and mistrust among the member states.For example: – there was tension between the president of Ivory Coast, the late Felix Houphonet – Biogony and the late Burkina Faso president Thomas Sankara.
- Member states of ECOWAS are also members of other organization. For example Mano-River Union, the cape Verde/Guinea Bissau Free Trade Area, the commonwealth and the Annual Franco African Conference This create divided loyalty and commitment
- There has also been friction between Anglo-phone and Franco Phone countries.
- Member states have not been making their annual payment regularly to ECOWAS in foreign currency. If this continues for long, it will waken the organization.
- Nationalism – Member states gives domestic interest priority and not the common issues affecting the community.
- The region is poorly linked with transport and communication Networks which hampers the smooth running of the organization.
- A number of member stats have experienced military coups e.g Ghana and Nigeria. Countries like Liberia have had civil wars leading to the intervention of ECOWAS by sending a peace keeping force between 1990 and 1990. others are like Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso.
- Member’s states have different currencies which fluctuate widely against major international currencies like American dollar and British pound. This creates the problems of rates of exchange hindering trade among states.
THE COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOCIAL AFRICA (COMESA)
COMESA replaced the former preferential Trade Area (PTA) which had been in existence from the early days of 1981.
It was established as an organization of free independent sovereign states which had agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people.
FORMATION OF COMESA
The treaty establishing COMESA was signed on 5th November 1993 in Kampala Uganda.
It was ratified a year later in Lilongw Malawi, on December 8th 1994 when the first COMESA Summit was convened.
The second COMESA was held on April 20th 1996 in Lusaka Zambia.
It focused on promotion of regional trade, economic integration, security and peace.
The third summit was held in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo on June 29th 1998 under the theme “information – a tool for increased Trade and investment in COMESA”
The Headquarters of COMESA is located in Lusaka Zambia
The Member Countries of Comesa
a) Angola \ k) Malawi
b) Burundi l) Swaziland
c) Comoros m) Uganda
d) Dr. Congo n) Zambia
e) Eritrea o) Zimbabwe
f) Egypt p) Sudan
g) Ethiopia q) Seychelles
h) Kenya r) Rwanda
j) Madagascar s) Namibia
According to the Agenda set by COMESA treaty the way forward to the organization was lead out as:
- By the year 2000, zero tariffs were to be achieved among member states.
- By 2004, a common external tariffs or customs union(common market status)
- By 2005 a monetary union, free movement of people including right of establishment (economic community status) will be established.
FUNCTIONN OF COMESA
- COMESA sustains growth and development of the member states by promoting a more balanced and harmonious development of its production and marketing structures.
- It promotes doing development in all fields of economic activity.
- It creates an enabling environment for foreign cross boarder and domestic investment including the joint promotion of research and adaptation of science and technology for development.
- COMESA strengthens the relations between the common market and the rest of the world and the adaptation of common position in international For a.
- It contributes towards the establishment, progress and the realization of the objectives of the African Economic community.
- COMESA works for promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.
ORGANISATION OF COMESA
There are four organs of COMESA which are empowered to take decisions on behalf of the organization.
- The Authority of head of states and government.
- The council of ministers
- The court of justice
- The committee of governors of Central bank
The Inter Government committee, the technical committees, the secretariat and the consultative committees mark recommendation to the council of ministers which in turn make recommendation to the authority.
THE AUTHRORITY OF EHADS OF STATES AND GOVERNMENT.
Consist of heads of states and governments
It is the supreme policy organ of the COMESA
Its decisions and directives are by consensus and are binding on all subordinate institutions, other than the court of justice on matters within the jurisdiction.
It is responsible for general policy and directs and controls the performance of the executive function of the common market.
It controls the achievement of the aims and objectives of the organization.
THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
It is composed of ministers designated by member states.
Decisions are made by consensus.
It makes policy decisions on the programmes and activities of COMESA.
The council monitors and reviews the financial and administrative management of the organization.
It ensures proper functioning of COMESA in accordance with the provision of the treaty.
COURT OF JUSTICE
It is the judicial organ of COMESA with jurisdiction over all matters referred to it as pursuant to COMESA treaty.
It ensures proper interpretation and application of the provision of the treaty.
The court of justice adjucates disputes among member states.
The decisions of the court are binding and final and the court act independently of the authority and council.
It is headed by a president and consists of six other judges appointed by the authority.
THE COMMITTEES OF GOVERNORS OF CENTRAL BANKS.
It is empowered by the treaty to determine the maximum debt and credit limit the COMESA clearing house.
It determines the daily interest rates for outstanding debt.
It also monitors and ensures the proper implantation of the monetary and financial co-operation programmes.
THE INTER – GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE
A multi- disciplinary body composed of permanent secretaries from member states in the areas of trade and customs, Agriculture, industry transport and communicatons, administrative and budgetary matters and legal affairs.
Decisions and made by a simple majority.
Main functions are:-
- Development of programme and action plan in all sector of co-operation except the finance and monetary sectors.
ii) The intern-governmental committee monitors and keeps under constant reviews and ensures proper functioning and development of the common market.
iii) It oversees the implementation of the provisions of the treaty and for that purpose request a technical committee to investigate any particular matter.
It is headed by the secretary – General appointed by the authority for a five year term.
The secretariat provides technical support and advisory services the number states in the implementation of the treaty.
It undertakes research and studies as a basis of implementing the decision adopted by the policy organs.
THE CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND OTHER INTEREST GROUPS.
It mainly provides a link and facilitates dialogue between the business community and other interest groups and organs of COMESA.
They are twelve
They are responsible for preparation of comprehensive implementation of programmes and monitoring their implementation before recommending to the council
They are one
i) Adminstrative and budgetary matters
Tourism and wildlife
Trade and customs
Transport and communication
Finance and monetary affairs
Natural resources and social affairs
Comprehensive information systems.
PERFORMANCE OF COMESA
- It has achieved more co-operations in the area of trade, customs, transport development finance and technical cooperation.
- Trade facilitation and liberalization measures have borne fruit as intra – COMESA trade has grown tremendously.
- Transport costs have reduced by about 25% following COMESA traffic facilitation measures.
- The P.T.A. bank has over the years been instrumental in promoting investments and providing trade finance facilities.
- It has established several important institutions including the P.T.A trade and development Bank, the COMESA clearing house, the COMESA re-insurance company and COMESA leather and leather products institute.
- It has promoted relationship between monitor states fostering peace and understanding.
- COMESA has improved infrastructure through interstate, transport and communication links which have benefited member states.
- Member have benefited from joit services rendered by multi-National institution e.g Multi-National fertilizer plant in Uganda, leather products plant based in Ethiopia etc.
- Regular tractk fairs (shows) have been organized and taken place in member states which has enhanced trade and cultural interaction.
CHALLENGES FACING COMESA
- Most member states experience a hostile external trade environment characterized by unfavourable terms of trade.
- COMESA member are suffocating under a large debt burden occasioned by continued borrowing from international markets.
- New economic policies by the World Bank and I.M.F coupled with reducing levels of official’s development aid have led to economic decline within the region.
- Unprecedented natural calamities e.g droughts and floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.
- Major unemployment crisis in all countries especially among the urban youth.
- Regional integration is at times outweighed by national interests.
- Civil strife, ethnic wars and political instability within the region.
- Some trade commodities among member states are similar hence commercial exchange are limited.
- COMESA has to ensure that member states comply with the regulations of the organization some of whom may not comply. Example is on issues of tariff reduction and member preferring broad markets other than local exchanges.
NATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES (KENYA).
National philosophy is a set of ideological beliefs championed by the ruling party that becomes widely acceptable within a particular country or political and geographical boundary.
Kenya has made tremendous progress since independence in political, social and economic fields.
Origin of African socialism.
Kenyan leaders under, the late mzee jomo Kenyatta, adopted African socialism as a national philosophy and ideology.
This was drafted as sessional paper no. 10 of 1965 entitled African socialism and its application to planning in Kenya.
This was due to:
- There was a need to create a new society free from political oppressions, socio-economic inequalities, racialism and discrimination.
- Creation of united and free Kenya in which individual rights and freedom.
- The need for a just and humane society.
Development of African socialism.
This was stated in sessional paper no. 10 of 1965, which had 58 major policy on economic, social and political development, such as:
- Political democracy.
- Mutual social responsibility.
- Various forms of owvership.
- A range of controls to ensure that property is used in mutual interest of society and its members.
- Progressive taxes to ensure an equalitable distribution of wealth and income.
- Diffusion of ownership to avoid economic disparity.
The paper pointed out the need for Kenyans to be motivated by a sense of service and patriotism to their country and not to be driven by greedy desire for personal gains.
The government hoped that education would be a means of achieving some of these goals.
The government also provided medical care and social security for better society.
The paper particularly stressed that individuals property and ownership would be grauranteed. The government would not nationalized private property without adequate compensation and could participate in business either alone or in partnership with private investors.
The paper stressed the role of agriculture in national development, proper management of both private and public sectors through consolidation and registration of land.\
Progressive taxation, distribution of wealth and income would bring social equality through a heavier taxation on wealthier members of the society.
Origin of harambee philosophy.
Kenya had three evils like povety, disease and ignorance.
The word harambee is basically a call for hard work in the difficult task of national building.
Development of harambee philosophy.
Its origin and applications have strong roots in our African traditions; it’s founded in the spirit of mutual social responsibility and is African socialism in practice.
Characteristics of harambee movement.
- Unity brings about co-operation among people before they settle down for a common project.
- Volition makes people contribute labour and material to any project without being forced by any authority.
- There is need for determination forms which is useful ingredient whenever undertaking a harambee venture.
- Free participation allows the harambee spirit to acquire its democratic nature as a mass movement.sense of purpose buttress the principles of determination behind the harambee spirit.
Harambee projects heve been grouped into three major categories:
- Social projects like schools, labarotories, libraries and medical facilities.
- Economic projects like roads, bridges.
- Agricultural and livestock development projects like cattle dips, irrigation and tree planting.
Origin of nyayo philosophy.
Moi was the late mzee Kenyatta’s vice president for 12 years, he became president in 1978 and he decided to follow in the footsteps of mzee (nyayo) of harambee.
Nyayoism is derived from a Kiswahili word nyayo, which means footsteps.
Development of nyayo philosophy.
Nyayo philosoply is guided by the need by every Kenyan to be mindful of the welfare of each over.
It’s based on three pillars of peace, love and unity.
Moi said that nyayoism is neither new nor foreign and was not different from harambee.
The spirit of harambee continued to be an inspiration embodied in the nyayo philosophy.
In his book “Kenya African nationalism and principles’’ moi says, love begets unity, unity procreates peace and peace is the beginning of progress.
Impact of national philosophies on national development.
Impct of African socialism.
- It has promoted respect for individual rights as enshrined in the constitution.
- Political democracy has been encouraged in the country.
- The sessional paper echoed and promoted the constitutional provision of separation of powers and reinforcement of a fair and humane society based on the respect of citizens’ legal rights.
- It has led to fair distribution of wealth and income through progressive taxation system.
- The government has provided equal opportunities by providing educational to all Kenyans for social and economic changes.
- There has been provision of essential services like amenities.
- There is proper management of agriculture which is the backbone of the economy.
- There is also ownership of property by both private and state ownership.
- It has also led to the development of other related philosophies like harambee and nyayoism.
- It has motivated Kenyans towards a sense of service to each other and not to be driven by personal gain.
Impact of harambee philosophy.
- There has been good development in the field of education as many schools has been built.
- A number of health centres, dispensaries have been set up.
- There has been creation of public projrcts like soil conservation, afforestration and flood control.
- The needy in the society have been assited like in education and health sector.
- It has encouraged Kenyans no to depend on external assistane in order to face the challenges of national development.
- Harambee gatherings act as forums for propagating and implementing government policies like, issues on HIV/AIDS, environmental conservation and management and security matters.
- It has also encouraged national unity.
- It has contributed to the redistribution of resources among the Kenyan people.
Challenges facing harambee philosophy.
- It was misused by public servants and politicians who angaged in corruption to get money to donate in harambees.
- It has also been one way of staging public shows between the haves and have nots.
- There were cases when people were coerced to contribute negating the spirit of harambee.
- To chech on the misuse of office by public servants, the government has enacted the ethics and public servants act barring public servants from playing an active role in harambee.
Impact of nyayo philosophy on Kenyans.
- It has created national intergration and harmony.
- It has promoted peace throughout the country which is essential for national development.
- It has also promoted foreign relations or affairs.
- There has been tremendous expantion in education sector like primary, secondary and universities in Kenya.
- There has been improvement and expansion in the health sector.
- There has been kenyanisation of the economy like jua kali sector.
- It ahs resulted in rural development through the establishement of the District focus for rural development.
- There has been promotion of sports and cultural activities throughout the country.
- Agriculture has been boosted through the creation of nyayo Tea Zone.
- There has been environmental conservation like afforestation and re-afforestation programmes.