Most centres by 1965 had achieved political independence such as to achieve political, economic and social development.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

It was formerly known as Zaire under the late Mobutu Seseseko.

It was colonized by Belgiam and gain independence in June 30th 1960.

Political Developments.

At independence Joseph Kasarubu the leader of the Bakonge Association became president while Patrick Lumumba the leader of the Congolese National movement (MNC) became Prime Minister.

There were no educated Congolese so most senior posts were taken by unites political problems began when whites opposed to the granting of independence to the country.

There were chaos and the whole country was planned into disorder in what came to be known as the “Congo Crisis”

It began in the army as the Africans in the army maintained against the Belgian officers. The new state did not have enough army as they relied on the old white officers.

The Africans were opposed to this, a situation they regarded as a sell – out by politicians.

The Belgium sends its army to the DRC to quell the military and also protect Belgium civilians.

They Africans soldiers move dissatisfied when the Belgium navy bumbed the coastral town of matiadi as they killed many Belgian civilians.

This lead to a military, engagement as it lead to lawlessness and disorder.

There was another tension in the South where M      Tishamba was preparing a secessionist movement of the Kitanga (Shaba).

He used the held of Belgiana soldiers to establish has own independent state.

This also prompted a rebellion in Kasai provinces.

The problem were so confronted as the government asked for military assistance from the U.N  who were of no great help as it had policy of into interfering in the international affairs of a country.

Lumumba and Kasavubu were political antagonists; they had internal squabbles which lead to Lumumba’s assassination in December 1960. This was due to Lumumba held radical views, while Kasavubu belonged to conservative.

Lumumba followers pulled out of govenement and want preventable and formed their own government and justice guervilla training camps to overthrow Kazavubu.

The African leadership with U.N involvement the day by forming of national coalition government under Cyrille Adoula and Atitonine Gizenga.

Aduola’s tenure of office ended in 1964 and Silvester Kimba became prime minister and Kasalabu presidents.

In 1915, the government of Kasavubu was overthrown by the army and by General Joseph Desive Mobutu in a bloodless coup.

Mobutu established a dictatorial government under a capacity system, banning other parties suspending the constitution and parliament and renaming the country Zaire centralization of power by Mobutu intensified internal opposition.

Rebeltion under Laurent Kabila emerged in 1997 Mobutu was outled from power, and Laurent Owire kabila as he was assassinated in 2001. He was succeded by his son Joseph Kabila, as president.

Rebellion led by Wamba Dia Wamba and Eunice Ihanga continued against Kabila’s government.

Finally, through mediation by the then South African President, Thabo Mbeki and UNs envoy mosptapha Niasse, a government of national unity was formed in the DRC in April 2002.


Developments in industry through the policy of nationalization by Mobutu, minerals like copper, oil and diamond were exploited petroleum and hydroelectric resources were developed for energy production.

Foreign investments in key sectors were encouraged like agriculture, mining, industries, transport and communication.

New roads and railways were constructed and navigated on the river congo.

Trade improved at the local level as well as at the international level.

The entertainment industry grew due to the popular Congolese music. The foreign based musicians sent part of their profits back home.


The authenticity programme by Mobutu enhanced the Congolese culture Mobutu dropped his Christian name, Joseph, and became Mobutu Sese Seko in 1971 and the country’s name to Zaire.

Education was developed under Mobutu primary, secondary and universities expanded.

Health services were improved as hospital and health centres were built with national mineral insurance programme and a pension scheme for workers.

Sports, music and dance were supported by the government in allocation of funds. Zaire was remained the democratic republic of conge by President Laurent Kabila in 1997.


  • There was the ussues of collapse of education.
  • There was four medical care and high number of HIV and AIDs infection.
  • Inability to fully explain her rich natural and human resource.
  • Excessive reliance and foreign aid which leads to debt repayment crisis.
  • There was political up heale.
  • User reliance informer idonist masters.
  • There was stained reelations with her neighbours like Burner.


After attaining her independence in 1963, Tanganyika embarked on an ambitions development programme.

The main political mileage was the union of Tanganyika under Julius Nyerere, with Zanzibar under Abeid Karume forming Tanzania in 1964.

The Arusha declaration was signed in 1967, laying down the principles for development as self – reliance ujamaa (Socialism) nationalization and rejection of all forms of discrimination based on class, wealth, status, religion and sex.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged their two parties Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro – Shiraze party (CP) to form Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in 1977.

Nyerere made remarkable efforts in Tanzania’s growth.

Nyerere retired in 1985 and was succedded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi.

Multiparty elections were held in Tanzania in 1995 under Benjamin Mkapa, who was elected the president.

In 2005, Jakaya Kikwete became the 4th president of Tanzania.


Increased agricultural production through the ujamaa programme.

Industrial development in sisal and textile industries and other small industries like cement oil and steal industries.

Income generating projects have been undertaken by the youth in Tanzania.

The nationalization policy assisted the government to transfer businesses from Europeans to Africans.

Transport and communication infrastructure was developed like Tanzan oil pipeline and Tazara railway line.

Trade imported, especially with Arusha being the headquarters of the rained East African Community.


Improvement the fields of education, schools and industries have been built.

By 1985, Tanzania had the highest literacy lead in East Africa.

Health and sanitation services were provided as hospitals and dispensaries were built.

The use of Kiswahili as the national and official language has enhanced cultural bonding.

The country guarantees freedom of worship.


  • There is lack of basic amenities
  • There was residence of ujamaa programmes.
  • There was lower production by farmers due to lack of farming autonomy.
  • The instability of the Tanzanian shilling.
    There were complications resulting form the political marriage between Zanzibar and Tanganyika.
  • There were power volumes in the early years of independence.

Social, Economic and Political Challenges In Africa Since Independence

  • Political instability resulted in military takeover in the 1960 e.g Nigeria, DRC, Somalia ideological differences amng pioneer leaders in various African countires led to civil strife.
  • Ideological and personal difference between African leaders stained international relations, sometimes leading to border closure.
  • Continued links with former colonial masters by Africa status (Neo-colonialism)
  • Leaders were ill prepared and inexperienced in administration at independence.
  • Inter ethnic wars have claimed many likes in Africa.
  • Due to unstable, government, civil wars and military take over people flee their countries leading to refugee problem.
  • There is rise of gueralla misconducts within ethnic committee.
  • In the 1990’s there was a wind of change towards multi-partyism


  • Poor economic planning and pursuance of policies such as nationalization and Africanisation programmes have discouraged foreign investors.
  • Un accordance on primary experts such as coffee, tea and cotton has led to realization of low incomes by the exporting countries.
  • There is poor infrastructure in Africa
  • Unemployment remains a time bomb.
  • Corruption and mismanagement of meager resources.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions have diversely effected food production.
  • Shortage of vital industrial raw materials such over exploitation during the colonial period
  • Inadequate funds have undermined youth.
  • Underdevelopment in the agricultural sectors has allowed due to lack of farm inputs.
  • High inflation rates and devolution of currencies have affected many African states.


  • High crime rates and insecurity are a big menace, and have scared away investors.
  • Terrorist acts such as the bondings in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and libya have trheated peace.
  • Population explosion affects the provision of social services.
  • Environmental pollution affects many urban centres.
  • Influx of refugees in some countries has stained social amenities.
  • The provision of social services remains a challenge.
  • Rural – urban migration has led to conjuction and much coming of slums.
  • Illiteracy local among the poor remains high.
  • The poverty situation in Africa leading to poor living standards.
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