It began n 1770 when it government its independence.

In 1787, therefore, a convention of delegation from the seeral states met in Philadelphia and drew up a constitution.

The constitution was ratified in 1783 and George Washington took office as the first president of the U.S.A in 1789.

The Constitution had the following Features.

It was federal

It was written

The constitution was the supreme law of land.

The bills of rights with rights and freedoms.

The constitution was to be interpreted by the Supreme Court.

The legislature was bicameral.(representative and house of congress).

The processes of constitutional amendments were clearly spelt out.

There was independent executives Judiciary and legislation.

The Federal Process in the U.S.A

There were two types of elections in U.S.A

general elections.

By- election.

General Elections: it’s conducted every years at the end of presidential term and following dissolution of the house of representatives like president


State government

By – Elections it’s conducted when a seat falls vacant.

Presidential elections. Held after four years.

Political parties rank and nomination of its candidates there is pre-elections nomination known as primary election.

The political parties were democrats and republicans.

Republicans: traditionally draw support from the North particularly among businessman and industrial its conservative.

They had two principals.

Maintaining high tariffs (impart duties, safeguard American Industry)

A Laissez-faire approach to government.

Democrats’ bedrock.Support lies in this south and from immigrants in the large cities of the North. They are more progressive.

They are also independent candidates who run sponsorship primary elections are held between March and May of the election year.

Party conventions. Are held before July to confirm the winner of the primary elections as part candidate. In case the seating president is eligible to contest the election his party also holds a connection to endorse him and map out campaign strategies. After party conventions, the campaign period formerly states.

The presidential candidate picks a running mate who if they win the election will become the vice-president.

The mass media plays a crucial role like salling the polices and values of the candidates and the party and also hold three debates which are broadcasted live.

To finance the campaigns parties hold fund raisings, party members gives the candidates money to meet their travel and advertisements.

Public opinion polls are surveys conducted by newspaper and leading television network. They assess the performance of the candidates in the public opinion.

Presidential elections are held on 2nd November of the election year. Americans both at home and abroad vote before or on that day and counted on 22nd.

The winner of the presidential poll takes office in January of the following year. He appoints senior civil servants, ambassadors, cabinet but confirmed by the senate.

The election for senators held after every two years, they saver for a period of six years. They can be re-elected as many times as possible.

The election of the members of the House of Representatives is held after two years. Every member must belong to a political party.

Election for state governors and legislative bodies are held after every four years.

Qualifications for presidential candidate

A U.S.A citizen by birth

Must be 35 years and above.

Must have lived in USA for at least 14years.

Qualification for a senator

Must be U.S.A citizen for at least 9 years

Must be 3 years and above.

Must be a readent of the state.

Qualification for a member of the House of Representatives

Must be a U.S.A citizen for not less than seventy years.

Must be at least twenty five years old.

Must be a resident of the state.


The Legislative (congress)

Conists of the senate and the House of Representatives. Its functions include

  • It examines the actitivies of the executive
  • It approves the biggest and ensures expenditure is accounted.
  • It makes and amends laws.
  • It rectifies treaties
  • It reflects the aspiration and interests of the American people.

The Executive

Consists of the president, the vice president, the cabinet and the civil services.

The president is the chief executive, chief translator, chief diplomat, and commander in –chief of the armed forces.

The cabinet functions include

  • Advising the president
  • Formulating government policies
  • Supervising the ministers
  • The civil service does the following
  • Explains and interprets government policies
  • Implements government policies
  • Maintains government records
  • Advises politicians on matter of policy
  • Helps in collection of government
  • Draws up development plans and the government budget.

The vice – president

He/she is allowed to succeed the president in the absent of death, resignation or impeachment. Vice president chairs senate meetings and votes in event of a tie over an issue.


It’s divided into federal and state courts.


Resettle disputes between the president and congress, federal government and the states interpreting the constitution.

Handling cases involving the U.S.A and other states.


This means that namely the three arms of the U.S.A government is the powerful to interfere with the function of the other.

There is charts and balances with the three arms.

The president is not as powerful as it might appear. This is because elections to the house are held after losing two years, and a third of the senate is elected after every two years.

If the president can veto laws congress can overturn this veto.

The congress cannot remove a president unless it prove that a serious crime.

The Supreme Court keenly monitors both the president and congress.

Relationship between states and the Federal Government.

The U.S.A give operates on division of powers between the central and state government.

State legislatures are empowered to pass laws on purely state matters.

States are empowered to run their own affairs in areas of provision of social services like healthier duration and welfare.

Advantages of a Federal system of government

  • The rights of smaller states are safeguarded against bigger states.
  • It enables different states live together but with separate identifies smaller states have the advantage of benefiting from a common    force hence enjoy greater security than when left on their own. When several state some together, they bring along rich pool of resources which are beneficial to the member states.
  • It enhances trade among the states by eliminating tarrifs and other barriers.
  • It enhances the political influence of the states as they come together and speak with one voice.


  • Secessionist threats may breakdown and weaken its stability
  • Diverse backgrounds and intervals of the various states call for more irreverence from the leaders.
  • Inequitable utilization and allocating of resources may lead to disparities in states development.



It began long as a struggle between parliament and the kings and in some instances, civil wars emptied. By the, there was transfer of power from the king to parliament.

Parliament pasted the bill of rights which established a constitutional monarchy this meant that the monarch was to rule under guidance from parliament

It has unwritten constitution however, here are various documents

Acts of parliament e.g magna cartel of

Legal publication by reputable authorities such as scholars, lawyers, political thinkers and statesman.

The Hansard which is the official verbatim reports of parliament.

Decisions made by the British law courts from time to time.

Royal prerogatives e.g deaclaring war.

Conventions and practices which have become respected are regarded as part of British constitution.

The Electoral process in Britain

  • General elections
  • By Election

Electives are hold within five years, with three political parties

The liberal party, which draws its member from the rich.

The labour party, which is a party of the middle class especially workers.

The conservative party which is backed by nobles and the clergy.

Anyone above 18years can vote.

Elections are secret ballot.

Candidates are sponsored by political parties.

The party with the majority of seats forms the government upon invitational by king or queen.

The leader of the party majority of seats in parliament becomes prime minister.

The prime minister forms the girl by making appointments to the cabinet senior civil service and foreign affairs.

Functions of government in Britain

Monarch, house of loads, house of command and the prime minister.


Its Head By queen or king

After election the queen invites the leader of party majority in the house of common to form a government answerable to parliament.

The queen summons the new parliament and both the houses together in the house oif lords.

Functions of the Monarch

  • The monarch appoints the Archbishop of the Church of England.
  • The Monarch is the symbolic head of commonwealth.
  • The Monarch is the commander in –chief of the armed forces.
  • The monarch represents Britain in international forces.

The House of Lords

Its function is legislative.

It also examines bills as they pass through parliament.

It keeps cheeks and balance of the power of the executives.

Ways to become a member of House of Lords.

Appointed by the Monarch

Through inheritance

Appointment to certain offices like judges and Archbishop

Functions of the House of Lords

  • Sits as a court of appeal to listen to criminal cases.
  • Assists the house of common in legislations of laws.
  • Debate non-controversial bills.
  • Holds bills from the house of comers for certain paid to seek publication.
  • Scrutinizes activities of the government in various ministries
  • Debates general issues of national importance.

The House of Commons.

It’s a legislative aim of government

It controls the recons and expenditure and also directs government pulley members are elected by people.

Qualification for Candidates

  • Must be a citizen of Britain
  • Must be twenty one years and above.
  • Be nominated by a political party or independent candidate

Functions of the House of Commer

  • It’s a major legislative arm of girl
  • It approves government revenue and expenditure.
  • Has power to pass a voting no confidence in the executive.
  • Debates in matters of national interest.
  • It directs government policy and keeps development purge on track.

The Executive

The Prime Minister

He/she is ruminated by directly by doctorate, through parties

Its servers for 5 years

After election leaders of the party with the highest number of M.P.S becomes the prime minister and thus forms the government.

Functions of the prime Minister

  • Appoints and dismisses cabinet ministries with the consent of the monarch chairs cabinet meetings.
  • Is the leader of the house of commons
  • Is the chief executive of the British government
  • Initiates both domestic and foreign policies.
  • Represents Britain in international fora.
  • Recommends to the sovereign the appointment of senior civil servants like and high commissioners.

The Cabinet

They are appointed by the Prime Minster from the legislative which has to be approved by sovereign/


  • It initiates, controls and implements political policy of the government
  • It is the highest decision making body in the county.
  • It initiates government legislation.
  • It coordinates implementation of government programmes.

Doctrine of Parliamentary supremacy

This means that parliament is the supreme and highest authority.

Parliament is the only organ allowed to make and amend laws.

All other organs of government operate under laws enacted by the parliament.

Parliament is empowered to pass a vote of no confidence in the executive

Parliament must approve all government recon and expenditure.

Limitations of the parliamentary supremacy

  • Decision can be nullified by any court of law.
  • Parliament is a representative institution complied of peoples representative local authorities make and pass by laws without consulting parliament legislation made by parliament may be altered by a future parliament.
  • It also takes into consideration the moral values of the society.
  • The actions of parliament are heavily influenced by public opinion.
  • There is need to look at interest of the affected instutions are taken into account.



India attained independence form Britain in 1947.

India house of people is equivalent into single member districts

It has a number of political parties; such as the congress party had the communist parties’ candidates for the districts have to fulfill the set requirements.

Electoral process.

  • General elections
  • By – elections.

During the general elections, presidential, parliamentary and regional governments elections are held.

Elections are held after every five years.

Elections for the legislative.

The parliament of the union is a bicameral house

It consists of two houses namely council of state and the house of the people.

Qualifications for the House of the People.

  • Must be a citizen of India
  • For a seal in the council of state, one should not be less than twenty years.
  • The council of states is composed of 12 members nominated by the president.
  • There are 238 representatives of the states elected by members of the state.
  • The house of people is composed of 530 members elected.
  • There are twenty members representing the union territories.
  • The voter of the party with the majority of state in parliament becomes Prime Minister Palace then appoints cabinet that for government.

Elections for the Presidency

  • It is elected to save for at term of five years.
  • The election is held in accordance with the system with vote and by secret ballot.
  • For one to be elected president following conditions must be fulfilled.
  • He/she must be a citizen of India
  • He/she must be above the age of 3years.
  • He/she must be a nullified for election as a member of house of the people
  • He/she should not had any office of profit under the government of India

Function of Government of India

  • It has federal system of government.
  • The state government is headed by governors
  • It has total control over the state government.

State governments are responsible for

  • Enacting laws for the state.
  • Construction and maintenance of transport and communication.
  • Maintenance of security or law and order.
  • Supervision of education
  • Regulation of commerce in state.

Functions of the president.

  • Has powers to make regulations for certain union territories
  • Appoints the chief minister and lieutenant governor of the National capital territory of Ddhi and the governors of this states or union territories.
  • Establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter-state disputes.
  • Nominates the twelve members of the council of states.
  • Member of the legislative.
  • Calls upon the leaders of the winning party after elections to form government.

The functions of the Prime Minister

  • Heads the council of ministers and government.
  • Advises the president in the exercise of his/her functions.
  • Represents India international fa.
  • Communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers, relating to administration of the affairs of the union and proposal for legislation.

Functions of the Parliament

Enacting and amending the laws of the union.

  • Prefers changes for impartment against the president in case he/she violates the constitution.
  • Has powers to declare lightings or watching to be national highways or national waterways.
  • It is charged with the security of the union.
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