Nationalism comes from the word nation. A nation is made up of people who share cultural and social background and have in the common ancenstry in historical terms.

Nationalism gives individuals a sence of belonging to a given state or country

It’s defined as a statement based on common cultural charactersitcs that binds people together as one nation.

African nationalism grew out of the derive among along different African community to fight to independence from their colonial masters. Early nationalism in Africa was with the right from the period of European colonizers it had to manifest itself in African rebellion and resistance which were staied across the continent. However inspite of the fact that they were all defeated they formed the foundation for future resistances.

Factors that promoted African nationalism

Racial segregation: where Africans were discriminated against the whites because of their skin/ it affected Africans scial polticially and economically.

Colonial labour laws: Africans were subjected to harsh labour conditions. Africans underpaid, overworked and introduction of K system.

Trade Union Movements: Trade unions wer the 1st large organization used for fighting for better working conditions of Africans. They they were used as foundations of polticial parties. They nurtured the leading who were instruemetnal in the freedom struggle.

Over – taxation: there was introduction of various forms of tax to be paid by the Africans.

Independent churches: these churches had broken away from the manstream mission churches due to discrimination by the whites on issues of African culture, mode of worship and non-promotion of black Africans to high position of leadership in church.

Colonial economic policies: the policy was meant to disadvantages the Africans, reuslitng itno many of being squatters on the land that was once theirs and pushed to reserves which were not productiove.

Western education: Christian missionaries provided education to Africans broughtout the colonial period Africans educated in mission schools joined colonial public services while others want to the nationalistic activities in African.


Africans ex soldiers in the 1st and 2nd world war gained fighting skills and also interacted with people from other countries who enlighted them about struggle for independence.

The pan African movement which supported independence for Africans countires, they made Africans realize that they shared a common problems a situation which led be used as a basis for national unity.

 The UNO stressed one ways of maintaining peace through decolonization.

 Lenist – maxist influence were against colonization. They argued that colonization was exploitation of weather people by the rich.

Socialist and labour parties. They were against colonies in Europe.

Indians independence in 1947, inspired leaders to agitate for political independence.

GHANA (Gold coast)

Portugal was the pioneer European nation to colonialism as settlement in gold cost in 1477.

Portuguese mainly interested in   and gold was of the iterm that wer produced in plenty in the gold coast by Aficans community.

Portugues named the country the gold coast in referene to the 1st gold depostis in the area.

Factors for growht of nationalism in Ghana

  • Effects of World War II the African wear veterans were reall to lead their people against colonial to rrule because the colonial government refused to compensate the x- solderis for participating in the war.
  • Africans not represented int the wher they could air their grievances.
  • Africans demanded wider franch (right to rate) majority of African allowed to participation in politics.
  • The trade unions contributed to nationalism since they enlightened workers on their rights.
  • Africans wer not given quality education.
  • High prices of essential commodities in the towns.
  • Africans were colonied import and export licences.
  • They got inspirations from pan-african movement.
  • There there morale was boasted by the UNO, which supported decolonization.

Causes of Ghanian nationalism

Nationalism in Ghana began in 1868 in response to British colonization.

Before the 2nd World War Ghanas nationalism was moest but after the 2nd Worl war it became radical and demanded for complet independence.

It was characterized by formation of polticial parties. The 1st party was National of God coast started by Akofu Addo in 1941.

1947 several parties merged together to form united Gold Coast convention (UGCC).

During the ACCRA riotes in 1948, British solders killed two of the christen serivde men who wer marchin to the goivernors castle to present a petition since their pensions wave quite  insufficient due to high inflation. This caused riots which spread to other parts of the country.

29 athor Africans were killed and Nkrumah and his collegues known as the big 6 were arrested they included Nkumah, Danguah, William afori, Akuto Addo, Ajei and Obotsebi lamptcy.

The Watson commission under the leadership of Andrew Alkon Watson was st up and reported that appressive social, political and economic conditions wer the major cause of riots.

A new katiba was recommended to cater for Ghananian interest.

In 1949, the coussey commission was appointed of Nkrumah who was radica.

It recommended a semi-responsible governmt and executive council and a nationally elected assembly with elections to be held in 1951.

In 1949, Kwame Nkrumah formed convention people’s party. He rejected the coussey Katiba, demanded for independence and government support from the masses.

In a speech at a political rally Accra held on 8th Jan 1950 Nkrumah advocated for the action through.

Alegiatimate political action.

News paper and educational campaigns

The Katiba application of boycotts strikes and non-cooperation based on the principlas of absolute non-violence. He had borrowed these protests from the teaching of Mahatma Gandhi on non-violent resistance.

The government declared a state of emergency Kwame Nkrumah and CPP officials were arrested.

During imprisomenment Newspapers campaigned for his independent in 1951 a general electin was held CPP won and Nkrumah allowed to form a governemtn and became leader of government business.

1954, NLM (National liberation movement) amerged to complete  two more elections held in 1954 and 1956 and CPP won on 6th march 1957, the country attained political independence under CPP and Kwame became 1st Pm and changed countries name from Gold Coast to Ghana.

Methods used by Ghananian Natioanalist in their struggle for independence.

  • Made use of public rallies.
  • Channedl eed their grievances through trade unions.
  • Used protests and domenstations against the colonial government.
  • Use of international forums e.g U.N.O
  • Participated in Katiba negotiations e.g Conssey commission. Wrote through publications e.g Accra Evening News through which they articulated their grievances.
  • Participated in the pre-independence election i.e 1954, 1956

Problems faced by Ghanian nationalism.

  • Disunity amng Africans.
  • Rivalrly among political parties e.g CPP and UGCC imprisonment and arrest of African Natinalist
  • Lack of finance to find their activities.
  • Brutal killing of Africans.
  • Poor means of transport and communication
  • Leadership wrangles – Nkrumah went out of UGCC.

ROLE played by Kwame, CPP for struggle for independence.

  • He was a leader of CPP and organized all activities. CPP gain support from former, the elite and the unemployed in Ghana hence untiying Africans in struggle for Africans national liberation.
  • CPP used non – vilent methods to persive the govenrmet for freedom e.g use of newspaper, campaigns, boycotts, strikes and non-coperation with the whites.
  • CPP won electins in 1951 and formed 1st government before independence.
  • Nkrumah’s leadership from 1951 was marked by better cocoa prices, the primary conditinn and construction of new transport means.

Reasons why Ghana achieved independence earlir than other AFricann countries.

  • Rapid economic and social changes which were caused by the extensive cultivation of cocoa.
  • Large group of educated elites spearhead decolonization. Kwame populist leadershio unity required for nationalism in Ghana.
  • Participated in the Pan-African Manchester conference of 1945 that resovled that all countires have a right to self – determination.
  • Ghana was coimparatively a small country in size was also well served with a good transoport and communication system. Therefore made the most of information from one arcre to another faster and effectiveness.
  • Presence of a few European settlers in the country comared to other countries like South Africa. These made the struggle for independence not to be bloody or have any complication.

How the attainment of Ghana independence contributed to liberation of other African countries.

  • When Kwame was installed president Nkrumah declared that the independence of Ghana was meaningless unless the rest African was freed of colonial yoke.
  • Inspired other African countries to fight for policital liberation. Supported liberatinon movement in Africa both morally and material e.g Guinea and Nigeria.
  • Nkrumah wants to the Aid of African countries even after independence when they were threatened by former colonial e.g Patrick Lumumba of DRC in 1960 – 1961.


Mozambique was a portugues colony.

In 1951 the government of Portugal declared Mozambique its and took over adminstarin from Portuguese companies until 1975.

Factors for the growth of Nationalism in Mozambique.

  • Increased settlement of Portuguese atizons in Mozambique by 1960, they were about 200,000.
  • Land alienaton by European settlers.
  • Forced labour: forced Africans to work on their farms and tree as slaves.
  • The adminstartion forced Africans to pay taxes.
  • The Portuguese imposed many restrictions in Africans limiting their freedom of expression and intellectual advancement e.g General Salazar ensured strict censorship of press.
  • The portagese practices racial discrimination.
  • Portuguese administration replaced traditional leadersh arbitrary. Portuguese settlers didn’t respect African culture since agood number of settelers were unmarried, they often untogunised the AFrican by making African women their mistress without honouring the customs of local people.
  • The security police treatd Africans with great quality inadequate medical facilties for Africans.

Methods used by Nationalist in Mozambique to struggle for independence.

  • Mass media nationalist wrote articles to the newspapers expressing their grievances.
  • Formation of political association’s e.g Frelimo (font for liberation of Mozambique).
  • Use of guerilla moement (devolutinary committee of mozambia strikes by social workers and peasants.
  • Government support fromother countries like Tanganyika, Russia and China (Relimo built school and health centres as away gaining support from Africans.
  • Use of international organization e.g OAU.

Problems experienced by Nationalist in Mozambique.

  • The church in Mozambique viewed FRELIMO as a terrosist organsiation.
  • Ideological differences divided African nationalist i.e where as some adovated for socialism, others supported capitalism e.g Uria Simangu, and Lazaro Kawandame.
  • FRELIMO compited for powers with other quieralla movements eg COREMO.
  • The assisantion of Frelimo leader Edward Mondline in 1969 was a serious setback to the movement before Samora Machel took over leadership.
  • The apartheid regions of S.A and the O.D.I regime of southeren Rhodesia fought African Natinalist.
  • During the nationalist war, Africans suffered inadequate basic necessities such as good and clothes due to the ambargo replaced by the protuguese.
  • The Portuguese were cruel to African nationalist many arrested and killed.
  • Naties were from many tribes and it was hard to unite than.


Formed in June 1962 by a coalitaion of forces opposed to for rule, living in exile in east and central Africa.

Its leader was Eduardo Chirambo Mondane who was born in 1920. He resigned as a lectutere and joined FRELIMO I 1962.

Factors that enabled FRELIMO to win the war

  • The country was heavily forested with narrow paths which was ideal with guerilla warfare.
  • FRELIMO fighters were familiar with the gopography and real constant information supply from fellow Africans.
  • Many Africans joined in nationalist war.
  • FRELIMO had a stategy of attacking different points at this made the Portuguese to station fragmented troops all over could not withstand troops guirellas.
  • FRELIMO got a lot of support of trained troops, found finacnces, weapons nd d vehicle from china and Russia.
  • Got support from OAU and independent African countires Tunisia.
  • FRELIMO system of admin in liberated areas attracted people e.g they abolished forced labour, excess taxation and built schools and health centres.
  • Ethnicity was eliminated by mixing people of different origin in the same fighting units.
  • Use of Portuguese language was spoken by most people unifed fighters.
  • Rhosesia and fought togerhr against Portuguese.
  • African womwn were recognized in the war and they mobilized fellow Africans to fight protuguese.

The course of Nationalism in Mozambique.

In 1960 the Makonde people formed the Mozambique African national union. It was the 1st political organsation with its headquarters in Tanganyika MANU organized peaceful protest in June 1960 agianst forced labour and taxes. When people resisted arrest the governor ordered pulbic to open fire and killed about 600 Africans.

The governemtn banned all Afircan orgnaisations.

In June 1962, FRELIMO was formed with Edward Mondlane being its president.

In 1964 FRELIMO started full scale guerilla warfare with war breaking out at once in for pronices in the North West.

This forced Portuguese to station their troops all over the country and the war lasted for 11 years.

In 1969, Eduardo mondline was assassinated and Samora Machol replaced him in 1970.

In 1972, Portugues defeat FRELIMO after getting support from the Soth African Rhodesia.

FRELIMO government from ZANU fighters in Zimbabwe and by 1972, FRELIMO has liberated almost the whole of Mozambique.

In Sept 1974, the Portuguese quit held peace talk with FRELIMO and agreed the following proviticans.

To establish a government consisting protuguese FRELIMO ministers.

Provincial government to be in office for months in order to oversea smooth transiton of indpenendence.

On 25th June 1975, Mozambique attained independence as Samora Machel as 1st President.


The datah settled in the cape area (S.A) IN THE 17TH

They displaced African communication found there and began settling farming.

After some time they changed their name to Africaners and even along different from the dutech called Africans.

Famers known as Boers.

During the Napolconic wars in 19th the British aimed at establishing a colony at the cape area to safeguard their Indian colony from French.

The boors moved to interior and established boars’ states namely. Transvaal and Orange free state.

The british themselves established their colony in Café Area called cape colony.

Formation of union of South Africa in 1910 because of Boers and British collaboration.

Bours formed National Party

Members include

Loois Betha                B.J Vester

JBNA hartzey             Peter Botha

Daniel Malan              Handrick Verwoud

J.G. Stiriton                Fredrick DC Klerk

Most of early N.P leaders were racist who believed in superiority of white.

Daniel Malan introduced the Apartheid policy in 1948 which aimed at separating the blacks from the whites and coach race was to parallel to each other.

Hendrick Verwood was instrumental in establishing policy homelan’s to the blacks. This was known as the Bantuastnad.

Reasons why Verwood started Bantustand.

  • Wanted Africans self development to take place in separate homelands wanted to establish industries next to the Bantustand so to provide cheap labour.
  • Wanted to help control African political activities.
  • Wanted to segregate blacks from whites
  • Wanted Africans to be concios of their separate ethnicity to ehnahce ethnic devision and avoid African untiy.

Black homelands in South Africa included.

Tvanskei Ciskei

Kwazulu          Bophuthatswan


Policy of apartheid collapsed in 1989 during the role of Fredrick de Klerk and won a nable peace prize.

African Nationalism in South African

Arican nationalism in S.A started as early as the 17th century when Boers 1st Settled there.

African comm. E.g Xhosa, Zalu, Cateshwoya put up strong resitance against British Invetnion.

After establishment of the union of South Africa in 1910, African conditions unde the Boer rule continued to deteriorate.

Africans expressed their disatisfication with the system by establishing independent churches and forming new political association.

Reasons for the rise of Nationalism in South Africa.

  • Christian teaching showed that racial segregation was antichristian.
  • Alienation of Africa land
  • The native land act of 1913 denied Africans the right to purchase the land making thelandless problem more serioius.
  • Africans who were recruited to work to the Europeans were paid low wages.
  • Discriminative labour regulations such as pass laws and denial of Africans to form trade unions.
  • Racial segregation in provision of basic social ammentities facilities such as hospitals and schools.
  • South Africans were influenced by the policy of pan in 1912 there was a meeting of African leaders at B1 Fountein it changed its name to the African national contregation in 1923. The founder members included.

Dr. Pixty Ka Izaka Seme

Rev John Dube of Natal

Thomas Mapikela

Walter Rubusana

Solomon Plaatye

Sam Makgatho.

Initaly ANC was a peaceful party whose main objective included

Protect politians.



The situation however changed when young man such as Oliver Tamba.

Nelson Mandela and water Sisulu formed the party. The young members for the ANC young league, in 1943.

The league resolved the use of militant action to achieve national liberation.in 1955 the president of ANC Albert Luthuli organiasation a genral party meeting of colouring people of South Africa called the congres people.

The diligets for the conference came from ANC, South African Indian congress, South African coloured people organized South African congress trade union.

The congress adopted the freedom chatter that South African belongs to those who live in it both black and which “There should be political equality and power sharing the difference races.

The freedom chatter showed clearly that the ANC advocated for multi-ravical society. This forced some Africans 2 movement out e.g Robert M. Subukwe and formed the Pan-African congress (PAC) in 1959.

The PAC Organised mass demonstration in Sharpeville massacre.

Following the massacre a state of emergency was declared PAC and ANC were banned and some of their leaders detained. It was this time that Nelson Mandela formed the military wing of ANC called Umkonnto we Sizwe (the spear of the Nation) while PAC called the difference races.

The freedom chatter showed clearly that the ANC advocated multi-racial society. This forced some Africans to move out eg Robert M. Subukwo and formed the Pan-African congress (PAC) IN 1959.

The PAC orgnised mass demonstration in Sharpeville Transvaal. The police opened give to the crowd killing 69 people and others wounded especially small children Sharpeville massacre.

Following the massacre a state of emergency was declared PAC AND ANC wer banned and some of their leaders detained. It was this time that Nelson Mandela formed the military wing of ANC called Umkhonto we sizwe (the spear of the Nation) while PAC was called POQO.

The most notable movemtn during this period was the black consciousness movment.

Steve Biko organized students from secondary and universities to protest against the apethoid regime. He was later arrested and and tortured by the whites.

The apartheid regime came to an end in the late 1980s out of increased external and international pressure in the end of apartheid those put in place to allow for the 1st multi-racial elections.

The parties participate in elections include.

ANC led by Nelson Mandela

Inkotha freedom party.

AFrican resistan movement under Eugine Terre Blande.

Nelson Mandela and ANC win with 62% of total votes becoming the 1st Black president of South Africa.

Methods used by African Nationalists in the struggle against apartheid regime.

  • Formed political parties to unit Africans against apartheid African workers formed trade unions to fight for their e.g SACOTO.
  • AFRICANS held strikes to protest policies such as pass law used diplomacy by sending delegations to international between such as OAU.
  • Formed military wings e.g Om Khanto we Sizwe which led to independence.
  • The church leader’s e.g Archbishop Desmond Tutu also preached against apartheid rule.
  • Used mass media such as radio and TV to protest against apartheid rule.
  • Some Africans who were in prison want on hunger strikes to fight against apartheid rule.
  • Used art such as music, films in the struggle for independent.

 Methods used by Nationalist in South African in their struggle.

  • Africans in South Africa formed polticial parties which united people Trade unins were organized by workers to champion their right sand also had political overtones.
  • There were demonstrations organized by Africans in South African.
  • The natiolists employed force when it became clear that the colonial governemt was not listening to peaceful negotiations.
  • The freedom fighters in South afria deployed diplomacy in International circles through OAU and the UNO to talking to the white minority rule.
  • The nation lists in detention and u nder arrest employment hunger strikes as a weapon against their unjust confinement.
  • Religions leaders like Bishop Desmond Tutu preached agin the injustice of the apartheid system.
  • The mass media was an essentaial force in the stuggle against apartheid.

Challenges Nationalists forced in the liberation struggle.

  • Many people in S.A lost their lives during the apartheid rule.
  • Political leaders were arrested and detained by the South Africa Police.
  • Many of the natinalsits were forced to leave South Africa to avoid beign arrested.
  • African poltical parties were prescribed or banned by law.
  • Africans newspapers and journalism was banned.
  • Trade unions in South Africa were banned for they were assured to have political overones.
  • The white minority government created Bantustans which were homelands for Africans.
  • The apartheid regime imposed emergency laws.
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