This is the cooperation/ interaction between sovereign nations,groups and individuals all over the world.

This is where sovereign nations from different parts of the world interact politically, economically and socially.

This interaction may be in the following field’s trade, humanitarian assistance and diplomacy.

Nations relating may come together to form organizations so as to enhance their interaction such organization included

  • The united Nations organization (U.N.O)
  • The common wealth.
  • The non – aligned movement


Association of independent nations formed after 2nd World War in 1945.

Its membership is open to all nations irrespective of their political and ideological believers or differences in economic system or levels of development.

Formation of the U.N.O

It was created after the collapse of the league of nations.

It created a UN Charter that was drawn up by representatives of 50 countries at the UN conference in international organization (UNCIO) held in San Francisco in U.S.A.

In the charter there were aims set forth as follows ‘we the people of the UN are determine”…………………… to save succeeding generations from discourage of war that had brought untold sorrow to mankind.

To reffrain faith in the fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person in the equal rights of man and women and of national large and small.

To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from trieties and other sources of international law can be maintained.

To promote social progress and better standards of life in large and for this ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace as one another  as a good neighbours.

To unite war strength to maintain international peace and security.

To ensure the acceptance of principals and institutions of method that armed forces shall not be used; some in the common interest.

To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advances of all peoples.


  • Maintain peace and security
  • Developing friendly relations among member state.
  • Replacing the legue of Nation that had collapsed.
  • Promotion of international understanding and cooperation
  • Precaution of another war/ prevention of another war.
  • Promotion of cultural interactions
  • Promotion of fundamental human rights and freedoms
  • Promotion of social progress and better living standards.
  • Promotion of economic dispute among others.
  • Protections of interest of minorities’ e.g children & women.


To achieve its objectives and purposes the U.N establishment principal organs as follows.

  • General Assembly
  • The security council
  • Internal court of justice
  • The economic and social council
  • The secretariats
  • The trusteeship


All members represented

Member state may sent five representatives but has only one vote.

Decisions require a 2/3 majority depending on impatience of the matter.

This where there are key positions of the functions.

 It has the following functions.

  • Discuss and make recommendations on any questions or matter within the score of the chatter.
  • Receives annual reports from secretary general the security council, economic and trust annual.
  • Guide activities of the five organs of the UN.
  • Controls finances of the organization and approves its budget.
  • It deals with various matters two of which consider political problems.

NOTE the agenda of the assembly usually consist of more than 100 items.


Its responsibility is to maintain international peace and security. The member state stayed in New York so that they can meet in a meant’s notice if an emergency arises. There are eleven nations which sit on the council; five permanent members ARE:

  • united states of America.
  • Russia
  • The United Kingdom
  • France
  • Chaina

They serve for two years after which others are elected in their place.  

For a decisions to be undertaken here must be 2/3rds agreement and must include all the permanent members who have a vote power.

This means that if one permanent member votes “No” no decisions can be reached.

The council is also authorized to investigate any dispute which might threaten international peace and security and make recommendations for a powerful settlement.

The council may also call members of the UN to  apply economic and diplomatic sanctions against any state of the council found guilty of breach of peace or act of  aggression or even military action be taken.


This is based at Hague, Netherlands

It settles disputes over international borders

It also deals with other disputes like treatment of diplomatic and consular staff, fishing rights, nuclear tasts, territorial waters delimitation and human right violation.


It has 54 members who serve for three years, 18 elected by general assembly each year to replace another 18 whose term has expired.

Its function

  • To promote social and economics development.
  • It also censors any attempts to abuse or inhibit human likes and freedom.
  • It has two commission that is human rights and status of women, drug problems and children rights.
  • The commission on the status of women seeks to obtain voting and other legal rights and educational opportunities for women in those countries where they are denied equal treatment with man.


It has 16,000 staff headed by the secretary – General.

It administers programmes and policies laid down by other UN. Organs.

It registers treatiets, carries on correspondence, and publishes reports and research work.

The secretary – general of the U.N.O is elected by the General Assembly for a five year term of office.


It’s in charge of territories which are governed by member states of the United Nations on behalf of the UN itself.

Activities of this specialized and agitated Agencies of the UN

The international labour organization (ILO).

Its work is to promote workers welfare.

There is an annual conference with over 120 member countries are represented with equal voting powers.

Its headquarters of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.

The food and Agriculture organization (FAO).

It increase production of food by using improved seeds and fertilisers and new types of plants.

To improve marketing and distribulation of all food and agricultural products.

Promote rural development and improve living conditions of rural population.

It helps to control pests such as locust and combat epidermis of animal diseases such as rinderpest

At the request of member governments, FAO sends agronomists and technologists to give instructions on such matters as the control of soil erosion, afforestation and irrigation.

The headquarters of FAO is in Rome, Italy.

United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO).

Its function is to fight illiteracy.

It was formed in 1946

It also publishes books and other research journals.

It’s also concerned with the presevation of historic monuments, Artificial and valuable cultures.

It promotes dissemination of information as social sciences, instruments of peace and justice.

Its headquarters is Paris in France.


It was set up in 1984 with its headquarters at Geneva.

Its main purpose is to combat diseases on a worldwide scale


Its also known as international bank for reconstruction and development.

It was created in 1945 with Washington DC as the headquarters.

Its function is to give loans to nations for development or job balance of payments support.

The bank is headed by a Board of Governors who comes from member states who meet once in year to assess and guide the bank’s activities.

Those with the greatest influence are the U.S.A, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and India.


It works closely with the World Bank

Its aim is to help stabilize the different currencies of the world.

It also promotes international trade.

It also raises funds from subscriptions from member states.


It provides the basic needs for the children of the world e.g medicine, vaccination and milk for under nourished.


Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya

Oversias the implementation of progrmaes aimed at managing and conserving the environment


It’s concerned with maintaining weather equipment for the North Atlantic region to guide pilots through fog and darkness.

Other agencies are universal postal union (UPU) World meteorological organization (WMO), international telecommunication union (ITU) United Nation High commissioner for refugees (UNHCPR).

Financing of the UNO

This is provided by member states

The member states are assessed according to their ability and they pay a percentage of the total budget according to that assessment.


It has helped reduce tension and conflicts between member states.

It has solved disputes between Iran and secret union (1946), India and Pakistan (1949) and Eritria and Ethiopia (2002) and Nigeria and Cameroon (2004).

  1. It assisted South Korea when it was invaded by North Korea in 1953.
  2. The UN sent troops to Democaratic republic of Congo Leopaldville(DRC) to help restore peace and order and the civil war.

3. It also argued upon Britain and France to grant independence to their countries in Africa and the rest of the world.

It helped initiate development programmes in developing countires e.g the UNDP has given assistance amounting to 95 million to 93 developing countries.

5. The world food programmes has been involved in distribution of relief food supplies to flood, drought and earthquake victivmes e.g Equator, Hungary, Middle East, Sudan and Somalia.

6. The UN has obtained equal rights for women in voting, educational opportunities and other legal rights.

7. FAO launched the freedom from hunger campaign 1960. Since then these movement has been successful all over the world.

8. The United Nation High Commission for Refugees(UNHR0 has over the years helped to provide food, shelter and other basic facilties to refugees who have escaped their countires due to political and other persecution.

9. WHO has helped in control of Malaria in most areas of the World

10. The World Bank has played a crucial role in reconstruction of the economies of many nation affected by World War II. It has helped some countries to develop economically by providing development assistance and other budgetary support for the economies.


  1. Member states of UNO have different forms of government and ideiologies. Therefore there is hadly any quotation of international importance that is not affected by ideological disputes.

Example: – Communist China and Russia have always been susipicious of other capitalist members and vice versa.

  • Nationalism has affected the performance of U.N.O members of UNO are sovereign.
  • UNO lacks sufficient funds which to carry out it work efficiently.
  • UNO depends on contributions from member states and sometimes member states do not remit their contributions on time.
  • UNO lacks the machinery to enforce its decisions. For example it does not have an army on its own, it relies on troops availed by willing members states.
  • UNO is dominated by five permanent member of the Security Council. These countries have the veto powers and for an important decision to be taken they must all vote ‘YES’
  • Another challenge is that of deep rooted regional conflicts

Exaples i) Arab – Israel conflicts

  1. The Gulf crisis
  2. Problems in Angola and Sudan.
  3. Ethnic strife in Rwanda and Burundi

All this end up stretching the UN beyond its capability and resources.

  • UNO members are also members of other regional or international organization Example i) Arab league

ii) The North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

iii) Non – Aligned movement(NAM).

vi) African Union.

The interests of this organization are sometimes not in accord with those of UNO.

  1. The decisions of UNO have often been ignored and member states have frequently taken action without any reference the UNO.

Example: – American and British invasion of Iraq in 2003 without UNO approval.


It is a voluntary association of independent states which were formerly part of the British Empire e.g colonies or domains. Some of this countries are Canada, Australia and New Zealand and republic like Kenya, India, Lesotho and Malawi.


Its origin is traced to what used to be the British Empire.

It was launched formerly but it doesn’t have a constitution.

It began with the publication of the Durham report in 1839.

However it reached another stage I 1931 with the statute of West Minister.

This can be considered as a referral constitution landmark whose contribution helped to shape the association.

Details of this association were worked out in 1926.

In this year imperial conference, a committee chaired by Lord Balfour, the Prime Minister of Canada, prepared a report and incorporated it the statute of West Minister of 1931.

The Statute stated that no act of the British parliament could be law of any dominion unless the dominion parliament itself agreed to pass it.

It also stated that any law relating to succession to the throne could require the consent not only of the British government but oe each Dominion parliament.

The statute defined the UK and the dominion of Canada, New Zealand and Australia as automats communities with the British Empire.

All were to be equal in status and not subordinate to one another.

They were all united by a common factor, their alliegence to the crown.

This was the first time in History that equality was established among independence states.

This was the beginning of what was to be called common wealth.


Modern commonwealth started in 1947 after India gained its independence.

Each commonwealth state chooses on it free will to become a member of commonwealth.

So when India and Pakistan achieved Independence they opted to become members of the commonwealth.

Membership then increased as Africa states became independence beginning with Ghana in 1957.

Most African states joined the association in 1960’s and 1970’s.

Modern commonwealth has also allowed membership from independent non – British colonies e.g Mozambique, Cameroon and Togo. There are 53 countries in commonwealth…


All commonwealth members accept the British queen as their head.

They have the same education system with similar structure.

They share a common heritage of public institution acquired from Britain.

These put the principles of democracy into practice. Such institution is a parliamentary government, an independent judiciary and a civil service free from politics.

4. The commonwealth people enjoy universal adult suffrage.

5. Government within the commonwealth practice consultation and exchange of information.

6. The members also hold regular conferences of Head of States where they discuss matters of common interests.

7. They have cultural ties. For example the commonwealth games and many of them use English as their official language.

8. They also from a power block and set up certain standards and ideals. Such ideals have led to the withdrawal of some countries from the commonwealth.

Example i) South Africa in 1961 because of Apartheid policy.

            ii) Pakistan in 1972 after common wealth members recognized Banglades, formerly East Pakistan as a new state.


Head of commonwealth government held a conference in Singapore in 1971.

Members agreed that the organization should have laid down ideals and principles.

They include:-

  • The commonwealth members believed that international peace and order were important for the purpose of security and development of humankind.
  • They emphasized the importance of liberty of the individual and equal for all regardless of home and race.
  • They set to remove all those factors contributing to differences in wealth between various section of humankind which had previously prevailed and continued to cause world tension.
  • They opposed all forms of colonial domination and racial discrimination and were committed to the principles of human dignity and equality.
  • They aimed at achieving free flow of international trade.
  • They believed that international co-operation was an important factor in promoting world peace and could only be achieved through international associations such as the commonwealth.

N/B 1979 the commonwealth head met in Lusaka Zambia.

            They adopted a declaration on racism and racial prejudice.

            This was a fellow up step of the declaration of 1971.

            At Lusaka conference the Head of States proclaimed their desire to work jointly to put an end to all forms of discrimination.


  1. The queen of England who is the head of the organization directs the activities of the organization and is officially invited to open all commonwealth meetings.
  2. The commonwealth secretariat is based in London and is headed by the secretary General. It is charged with the day to day running of the organization. It organizes meetings for the head of states and prime ministers of the member states.
  3. The summits of foreign minister of various countries converge to deliberate on issues affecting their countries.


The secretariat was established in 1965 all Ghana’s request. Its functions are

a) Circulating information and anything of general interests to member countries.

b) Co-coordinating business that is it makes careful study of commonwealth’s organization that deals with matters of economic and financial.

c) Encouraging those projects that will be of some benefit to the commonwealth members.

d) Organization the prime ministers conferences which take place after every two years as well as other conferences.

c) It is also responsible for several programmes of co-operation.

f) Difference officials at the secretariat perform different duties. The overall is the secretary general.

NB: Expenses of the secretariat are paid for by contribution made by independent government, contributions are based on population and income of the individual member states.


There are various Agencies that help in focusing particular work of the commonwealth.

These include

a) Commonwealth fund for technical co-operation whose major function is to assist in funding of projects, training programmes and supply of experts to member countries.

b) The commonwealth Agricultural Bureau is mainly concerned with assisting countries in agricultural production by providing technical assistance and researching in the field of agriculture.

c) Commonwealth parliamentary association is a forum for the Member of Parliament from commonwealth countries where parliamentarians meet to exchange ideas aimed at improving debates in their respective countries.

d) Commonwealth regional health works in collaboration with WHO to improve the health and general hygiene of the people of commonwealth member countries.


Commonwealth states hold various conferences which are seen as important forums for consultations.

The president or prime ministers had meetings every two years.

In this meeting they discuss international economy and politics and whatever decisions they make are made by consensus, not voting.

Meetings between ministers cover foreign affairs, defense, supply and finance ministers responsible for this ministry meet yearly.

 Minister for Health, Edcuation and will meet every after three years.

Commonwealth states are represented by High commissioners in the capitals of other member states.

The main duty of this commissioner is to maintain close co-operation between member states.

They are of equal status to ambassadors and are important elements in the interstate consultation.


1. Providing financial assistance to member countries example the special commonwealth African assistance plan which was established in 1960.

2. Providing a forum for promoting peace among the member states.

3. It provides education and research among member states as Research findings are exchanged among member countries.

4. Providing technical assistance to member countries in the fields of Agriculture, medical, industry, transport, communication and engineering.

5. Granting member states favourable trading opportunities.

6. It provides democratizations amongst member states oby sending election observes and monitors.

7. Promoting friendship and understanding among member states e.g through commonwealth games.

8. Enhances the development of legal system among member states.

9. It provides a forum for heads of states to consult on international issues.

10. It is a watchdog against the violation of human rights among members.

Examples i) Condemned apartheid in South Africa

            ii) Suspended Zimbabwe for violating property right of her while citizens.


1. Shortage of funds: Member’s states are supposed to contribute funds for the running of the organisatin programmes. Due to their weak economies many states have defaulted payment of the funds.

2. Ideologial differences – This have resulted into misunderstanding between members states. The socialist ideas propagated by the former solution and the capitalist ideals of the Western Worlds have caused division among member states.

3. Membership of other organization: – Commonwealth members are also members of other regional organization such as African Union, European Union, common market of Eastern and South African countries (COMESA), European Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) etc.

4. Civil Wars: – After attainment of independence, many African countries have been torn by civil wars. Thus the countries have to attend to the more crucial internal problems before engaging in any external affairs.

5. Boarder disputes:- For long decade long conflicts between Pakistan and India have threatened one of the major function to ensure that peace prevails in all the countries.

6. Absence of enforcement machinery – Absence of enforcement machinery is another challenge facing the commonwealth. It lacks a standing army to enforce its decisions. It relies on member states good will. The only weapons used by the organization are economic sanctions.

However it sometimes ignored by some of the member states.


This term cold war refers the rivalry which emerged between the West (USA and his allies) and the former East block (USSR) and her allies) after the end of World War II.

It was a war of propaganda and was characterized by economic hostilities towards each other and military and financial to their allies.


a) Ideological differences

b) The disagreement over disarmament between USSR and U.S.A

c) The iron curtain policy adopted by U.S.S.R.

d) European conflicts in the late 1940s.

e) The UN domination by the Western Powers.

f) The formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

g) The Marshall Plan of 1949 and Truman doctrine.

Ideological Differences

The USA and her capitalist allies did not trust the secret union even when both were fighting against Germany.

The USSR was also cautious when dealing with her Western allies.

The main reasons for this mistrust was ideological difference between the capitalist advocated for free enterprise in economic development and freedom of the individual, the communist east wanted means of production to be commonly owned under strictly command of the state.

The Disagreements over Disermament between USSR and the USA

It was the wish of the USA that manufacture of deadly weapons is checked.

The horrors of the Atomic bomb in Japan were still fresh in the minds of the UN delegates.

So this plan was accepted by the UN’s atomic Energy commission.

The plan suggested international ownerships and unlimited international inspection of Atomic energy materials and production.

The USA agreed to destroy the stockpiles of atomic bombs after the plan was affected.

The Soviet Union viewed this issue as propanganda of the worst kind especially because she had not yet manufactured any atomic bombs.

She thus wanted the Atomic weapons destroyed before the plan on inspection was affected.

The two powers could not agree on the arms issues and as a result the United States and the Soviet Union to increase their stock pile of Atomic bombs.

The Iron Curtain Policy Adopted By the USSR

The USSR already occupied part of Eastern Europe before the end of the Second World War like Romanice, Balgeria, Czechoslouakia, Hangary, East Germany and Poland.

Soviet power over these nations was so thorough that it prompted Winston Churchill, the then prime minister of Britain, to say that an iron curtain has been dropped by Soviet Union to seal Eastern Europe from the West. This new tight and artificial division of Europe made International relation very poor.

European Conflicts In the Late 1940’s

These conflicts increased the lension between the two sides, the civil war in Greece where USA and Britain supported one side and USSR the other.

The UN Domination by Western Power

The UN was one of the battlegrounds of the cold war.

Proposals at the UN would never get anywhere because of the Russian Veto.

When USA suggested that Veto powers be limited, USSR maintained that the power limited USSR maintained that the veto was only way of assorting herself in the UN which was mostly pro-USA.


NATO was a military alliance of USA and most states of Western Europe formed in 1949.

The organization committed the USA to the defense of Western Europe in return those countries would support the U.S.A.

This threatened USSR and her satellites states.

They viewed it as a capitalist scheme set to destroy the communist Russia.

So the USSR and her allies also set to check the capitalist activities thus the cold war was on.

The Marshall Plan of 1949 And Truman Doctrine.

The Marshall plan of 1949 and Truman Doctrine was a declaration by the USA was also factors which led to the intensification of the cold war.



War was caused mainly by ideological differences and ambitions of the USA and the Soviet Union in Europe.

In 1946 the Soviet Union contributed to the overthrow of the Greek post war government.

This spreading soviet influence prompted the US president Truman to introduce the famous Harry Truman doctrine in March 1947.

This doctrine state that USA would support free people resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.

This declaration is widely considered as the official eruption the cold war.

It led to American intervention in Greece, Turkey and other countries where the Soviet Union was trying to spread communism.

To counter further spread of communism, the USA felt there improved economic contions were necessary.

Europe needed financial and material aid for reconstruction.

To achieve this aim the USA in 1947 put forward the European recovery programme (ERP) which later known as the Marshall plan.

It was named after it initiates, the American secretary of state General marshall.

The Soviet Union hated the Marshall plan and discouraged its satellites states from benefiting from it.

It closed all the land to Berlin, a city in East – Germany which had participated between the allied countries and the Soviet Union.

The allies then airlifted material AID to West Berlin from 1948 to 1949.

In addition they blocked the passage of good meant to Eastern Berlin, in the soviet Zone.

After the war German was divided into two states.

The allied power took control of the West which they named West Germany and formed an Anti-service. Military organization called the North Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO) in 1949.

The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.

In response to the Marshall Aid plan, the formation of the council for mutual economic assistance (COMECON was formed by the soviet – union.

Russia then poured it money in its satellites to assist them in attaining the production targets set by the soviet government.

The Soviet Union answer to NATO was the formation of the war saw pact in 1955.

The pact brought all the soviet satellites into a military union.

From 1950s, Europe remained a divided house and a major battle field of the cold war.

The dominance of the two major superpowers continued to be a towering reality.

They almost went to actual war when the Soviet Union built a wall which physically divided Berlin into soviet controlled east and allied controlled West.


In Indo-China USA and USSR clashed over Vietnam which had been colonized by the French but was taken over by the Japenese after World War II.

After the war the French tried to recolonize Vietnam but failed.

USA and USSR got involved in vietnma each supporting different Natioanalist leaders.

USSR supported HOCHI MINH.

USA supported BAO DAI.

Led Vietnam to be divided into two parts.

Soviet Union supported the North and the United States supported south.

Division led to the Vietnamese war in which the two powers were used.

During the war the viet cong, the communist guerillas continued to operate in South with the hope of establishing a communist government there USA wished to block the spread of communism to the sketch and as such gave direct military aid in the form of troops, military aircrafts and warships to the South.

Even with these effects the Americans were defeated by the communist and forced to withdraw.

This defeat hastened the American cold war propaganda more than ever. 

Cold War in Cumba Central America

In 1959, Fidel Castro took over power in Cuba with the support of the soviet union

 The US Tried unsuccessfully to remove him.

The Soviet Union gave Cuba weapons and hoped to use the Island nation as a military launching base against USA in the event of war.

The US was concerned  and field threaten because some of the weapons the USSR gave Cuba included dangerous missiles which were within US range in October, 1962, President John Kennedy declared that US would stop the USSR military build up in Cuba by imposing a strict blockade on all communist military ships approaching Cuba.

It asserted that the only condition for peace was the removal of the missile from Cuba.

Khrushcher, the soviet leader was compelled to accept Kennedy’s demands with the removal of the soviet missiles from Cuba, a dangerous crisis war ended

Cold War in Angola

The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the movement for popular de libertaca de Angola (MPLA) of Agostine Neto in the war of independence against the portueguese.

A civil was begun and the USA who were against the spread of the soviet influence joined the crisis.

United National de independencies total de Angola (UNITA) of Jonas Savimbi.

The USA also encouraged South Africans direct military intervention.

This came to be known as Anglo crisis which saw Angola torn by civil war right through into the 1990s.


The cold war increased hostility between the two super powers over political and economic dominance in the world.

However, the superpowers made attempts to co-exist without taking advantages of one another.

They adopted the de’tente policy e.g they made several attempts to improve relation between them.

This attempts led to several agreement on disarmaments.

Fore example(i) The partial test Ban treaty of 1963

                        ii) The non proliferation treaty of 1968.

                        iii) Strategic arm limitation talks (SALT )1972

  1. Salt II on 1979

Recently Western domiciles have been established in formerly communist countries such as Poland, East Germany and Russia.

The soviett Union played a major role in weakening communism especially after Gorbachev adopted a more liberal policy.

He also sought Aids from the West to improve the soviet ailing economy.

The two factors and other internal problems made several states of the union use interest in the communism ideology.

They thus sought to leave the union and form their own independent

Last stage of the cold war came when Iraq invaded the tiny rich country Kuwait. Saddam Hussein claimed that Kuwait was iraq 19th century since.

Invasion led to the gulf was which the Americans under the mandate of the United Nations called allied force to liberate Kuwait.

USA was successful this time.

The allied forces were able to face the Iraqs out of Kuwait and install Thed esposed rulers.

This success was a clear indication of weakening soviet power in 1991 the Warsaw past was cancelled.

This was a step further towards the end of the cold war.

The period that followed the gulf war saw the disintergration of the osoviet union into many independence republics.

By the end of 1991 several states left the union and formed their own republic. Others led by colonialist Russia under President Boris Yelsin joined to form the confederation of independence states (CIS). Others like Georgia plunged into civil war while groups of people in other states called for secession.

This was the final straw that broke the camels basic and ended the cold war.


  • The war led to space race: After the World War I and II, the two super powers completed in development of space craft (Rockets) which could be used to explore outer space.
  • The war caused insecurity: – The war caused insecurity as each power tried to spread its own ideology either by force like in the case of Hungary or through peace like the case of Cuba.
  • Although the two super powers co-operated during the second world war the soviet union always refused to co-operate with USA on matters economically the type of Government to be formed in some countries e.g Vietnam and Korea.
  • Each power advocated for a government based it ideologies resulting to splitting up territories like in the case of it and s. Kuria.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations if the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of World peace leading to the arms race.
  • In certain situations the cold war led to real war like in Korea and Vietnam each power advocated for a government based of its ideologies resulting to splitting up of territories like in the case of North and South Korea.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations of the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of world peace leading to the arms race.
  • Various crises took place in 1950s and 1960s

Examples i) The Hungarian revolution 1956

  • ii) The Suez canal crisis which were in most cases caused by the cold war as the two powers compelled forward dominance.
  • There were coups and counter coups in the third world countries lead to rise of dictators.
  • Europe was divided into two with an iron curtain that is Berlin wall restricting movement of people from East to West Germany and vice versa.

The Non-Aligned Movement (Nam)

It is the kind of neutralism,It is the policy of not aligning with any power block

Non alignment expresses freedom of decision and choice in deciding each international issue on it merit.

It is therefore a free and independence policy

The movement was concerned with concept such as neutralism and neutrality

Neutralism refers to foreign policy of states in time of peace.

Neutrality refers to a term in International law referring to the rule that states are supposed to follow during a legal state of war in which they are out participants.

Formation of NAM

After World War II former Europeans colonies in Africa and Asia began to attain independence.

Many Nations feared that the super powers were threatening their sovereignty.

They found it necessary to form an association which would unite them against nomination of either US or the Soviet Union.

This resulted in the formation of NAM in 1947.

The movement grew steadily from 1947 when it had a few founding members among them India and Yugoslavia.

The leaders of these two countries Jawa Harlar Nehm and Marshal Tito played a key role in shaping NAM.

The bandung conference was held in Indonesia in 1955. It was the first NAM meeting and had 29 participants from Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

These included heads of five states from China, India, Egypt, Indonesia and Yugoslavia.

The main issue during this conference was how they were going to tackle international issues such as cold war which were threating the new independence states.

The conference thus defined NAM as spelt its objectives.

The Objective of Nam

  • Member states must pursue independence policy base on peaceful co-existence without taking advantage of one another.
  • Need to participate in multilateral military alliance e.g NATO or WARSAW of which were prompted by the superpowers.
  • The safeguard the sovereignty of member states and support liberation and independence movement.
  • To participate in bilateral military alliances with great powers or have foreign military bases on their territories up with their agreement.
  • To discourage Neo-colonialism by promoting economic independence of it members countries.
  • To try and get better terms of trade particularly for the countries whose economies depend on exploitation of raw materials.
  • To fight all forms of discrimination, for example racism.
  • To encourage the member to actively participate in UNO programmes
  • To strive to improve agriculture and increase food production by making fund available towards this goal.


The NAM movement held several conferences, including one which took place in Belgrade Yugoslavia in 1964. NAM  meetings are held four years and are attended by Heads of States of member countries.

The NAM countries have strengthened their influence in World affairs by increasing their voting power in the Untied Nations General assembly, after independence NAM has been regarded as an important diplomatic weapon for influencing the superpowers and securing maximum assistance from the developed World.

It has enable members countries to formulate policies freely and according to their needs and situations.


  • Disagreements, conflicts times of war between states have affected the performance of NAM.
  • The movement has been affected by political instability due to civil wars and military coup de tats in some members.
  •  States member countries are poor; they therefore are not able to remain economically independence because they acquire aids from both the East and West. This makes it impossible for them to pursue independence policies.
  • The movement lacks funds date to the poverty of some of its member stated who are not able to remit their dues on time o r at all.
  • Lack of a secretariat makes the co-ordination of its activities difficult personality difference between some of it leaders have undermined the holding fruitful discussion.
  • Member states are also loyal to other organization such as OAU, European Union and the commonwealth. This has affected their commitment and active anticipation.
  • The break up of the USSR and the subsequent end of the cold war has established the movement.
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