Identify Two inventions which improved the textile industry in Britain during the eighteenth century.

  1. Spinning Jenny which produced large quanitities of cotton threads.
  2. Spinning mule which produced high quality threads.
  3. Power loom which facilitated the weaving process.
  4. The cotton gin which quickened the removal of seeds from cotton fibre
  5. The flying shuttle.
  6. Water frame.

Name the main dispersal centre of iron smelting in Africa.


Mention one initial problem that London faced when it was established.

  1. It was razed down by fire in 120 A.D because the buildings were of wood.
  2. It was constantly attacked by enemies.
  3. Outbreak of diseases such as plague.
  4. Internal revolts by peasants who destroyed property in the town.

Give one reason why early urban centers in Ancient Egypt developed in the Nile valley.

  1. Water from the river was used for transportation
  2. Water from the river was used for domestic use/industrial use.
  3. Nile valley contained fertile soils for farming/availability of food.
  4. Nile valley had cool temperatures which encourages settlement.
  5. Vegetation along the river provided building materials.

Identify the Two leaders who signed the Buganda Agreement of 1900.

  1. Sir Harry Johnson representing the British.
  2. Apollo Kagwa, the Buganda’s Katiikiro.

Name Two African communities involved in the Chimurenga.

  1. The Ndebele
  2. The shona

State Two conditions which one had to fulfill in order to become a French citizenship in Senegal.

  1. To have ability to read and write in French/Literate and be able to speak in French language.
  2. Be a Christian (Catholics)
  3. One must have worked in the French civil service/loyal in the French government/military service.
  4. Practice monogamy.
  5. Be of good character.

Identify Two new weapons of war employed during the First World War.

  1. Use of poison gas
  2. Use of aeroplane
  3. Use of tanks
  4. Use of submarines
  5. Use of battleships

Identify the main factor that prompted the U.S.A to join the First World War in 1917.

Germans declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare/sinking of the US ship.

Mention ONE feature of the Executive Secretariat of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

  1. It is headed by an executive secretariat.
  2. It is based in Lagos Nigeria.        

Give the main reason for the formation of Chama Cha Mapinduzi in Tanzania in 1977.

To enhance national unity between mainland Tanzania and the Islands.

Identify the head of the lower chamber of the Indian parliament.

The prime minister

State FIVE characteristics of early agriculture in Europe before the agrarian revolution.

  • Land was owned by the feudal kings who distributed it to the nobility. The nobility then rented to the peasant.
  • Agriculture was practiced for subsistence purposes mainly to feed the family.
  • Practiced open field system where land was unfenced.
  • Simple farm implements were used.
  • Poor farming methods
  • Farmers grew poor quality plants and kept poor quality animals.
  • Inadequate feeds during winter made farmers to slaughter most of the animals.
  • Uncontrolled animal and plant diseases that were also spreading very fast because of  unfenced and common grazing fields.

Explain FIVE effects of Agrarian Revolution in Britain.

  1. Increased  food production/Adequate food supply.
  2. Higher life expectancy and improved standards of living.
  3. Diversification of agriculture.
  4. Farmers abandoned small scale/subsistence farming and established large scale/plantation farming.
  5. Land enclosure system led to landlessness among peasant farmers causing them to migrate.
  6. Agro-based industries developed in Europe as they were provided with agricultural raw materials.
  7. Agriculture became commercialized led to expansion of local and international trade.
  8. Development of transport infrastructure.
  9. Scientific research and inventions in agriculture were promoted.
  10. Landless farmers migrated to USA, Canada, New Zealand and Spread of agrarian revolution to these countries.
  11. Establishment of Royal society in 1838 whose journals publicized the new ideas and techniques of learning all over the country.

State THREE ways in which religion contributed to the growth of Asante or the Asante Kingdom

  1. The Golden stool a symbol of religious reverence, creating unity among the states.
  2. Religion played a unifying role among the people of the empire.
  3. Religious leaders provided political leadership as Asante hene, Oman hene and chiefs.

Describe the political organization of the Asante Empire.

  1. The Asante Empire was ruled by the Asante hene.
  2. The Asante hene was advised by a confederacy or union council consisting of kings and the states forming union.
  3. The state kings were known as Omanhenes.
  4. The Asante States were bound together by the Golden stool which was a symbol of unity.
  5. Each king had to give a contingence of soldiers when required by the Asante hene.
  6. Each sState had to pay tribute during wars and national emergencies.
  7. The annual Odwira festival strengthened the spirit of solidarity and national hood.
  8. There was a strong standing army for defence of the empire.

State THREE advantages of road transport.

  1. Best suited for short distances.
  2. Can be used in inaccessible areas.
  3. They are flexible.
  4. Connects other forms of transport like water and air.

Explain the shortcomings of traditional methods of communication.

  1. Distortion of information, massagers could alter or give incorrect information.
  2. Depended on the power of memory. It was possible to forget some information.
  3. Time-consuming; Runners took a long time to deliver messages.
  4. Restrictions: Some instruments could only be used at certain times e.g. drums and horns – only when it was quiet.
  5. Determined by weather; fire could not be lit during rainy season.
  6. Different interpretation drum beating could only be understood by the communities that used them. Others may interpret the message wrongly.
  7. Weather during windy weather; smoke could be blown away.
  8. Not secretive; A message may also get to the enemy e.g. when the drum, horn or fire was used.

State THREE factors which favoured the application of assimilation policy in Senegal.

Bena, Ngoni, Pogoro, Ngindo, Wamwera, Zaramo, Luguru, Mbunga, Matumbi, Ndendeule.

Explain the reasons why Africans were defeated in the maji maji rebellion.

  1. They used crude weapons. These were no match to the sophisticated weapons of the Germans.
  2. The magic water did not work as anticipated leading to many deaths.
  3. There was disunity among Africans which made them disorganized in attacks.
  4. The Germans got reinforcements from Germany. They also got them from their colonies in other parts of Africa.
  5. Africans were weakened by natural calamities e.g. famine, diseases, and drought.
  6. There was lack of coordination among African leaders e.g. lack of military commanders to command them centrally.
  7. The Germans had better trained soldiers and well-armed with sophisticated weapons.
  8. Africans were easily demoralized when their leaders were arrested and hanged. Publicly e.g Kinjetikile Ngware.
  9. The Germans used destructive methods like scorched earth policy.
  10. Major African communities were left out the rebellion e.g. the Hehe and the Nyamwezi.

State three factors which favoured the application of assimilation policy in Senegal.

  1. Long period of interaction between the Christians and the people of the communes.
  2. A high percentage of the commune people were mulattos who accommodated European culture easily.
  3. The presence of many Christian coverts in the communes.
  4. The mulattos were willing to work for French in other parts of Senegal.

Explain six factors which undermined the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria.

  1. Lack of centralized indigenous systems.
  2. The South had many ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures.
  3. The Br. Introduction of forced labour and direct taxation was resented by the people.
  4. The educated Southern elites were opposed to the colonial-appointed administrators especially chiefs.
  5. The Br. Failure to understand the role of the Oba leaders.
  6. The colonial-appointed warrant chiefs missed power by raising taxes and harassing women.
  7. The Br. Administrators used excessive force in dealing with African resentment.
  8. Communication barrier due to lack of common language.

Name 3 political parties which struggled for independence in South Africa.

  1. The African National Congress (ANC)
  2. The Pan African Congress (PAC)
  3. The United Democratic Front (UDF)
  4. The South African Indian Congress (SAIC)

Explain the factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in South African.

  1. Land alienation through the Native Land Act of 1913.
  2. The imposition of stringent Pass Laws which forced Africans to carry passes.
  3. The passing of Masters’ Servants Act which made it an offence for an African to leave his job before the period stated in contract.
  4. The Apartheid Laws and practices through such laws as Group Areas Act, The population Registration Act, The prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act.
  5. The creation  of Bantustan (African Reserves) homelands in less productive geographical areas.
  6. Denial of African participation in politics and civil representation.
  7. Dention and arrest of Africans without trial.
  8. The passing of Bantu Education Act of 1958.
  9. Unwillingness of whites to share power and authority with blacks.

Identify THREE main institutions of British Parliament.

  1. The Monarchy Queen or king – Hereditary
  2. The House of Commons, Elected
  3. The House of Lord’s Nominated by the Monarchy or hereditary.

Explain six functions of monarchy in Britain.

  1. To invite and Commission the leader of the Party with majority support in the House of commons to form the government.
  2. The ceremonial and legal head of British government who summons and opens the new parliament.
  3. Opens parliament by reading a speech prepared by the government.
  4. Symbol of national unity and focus of loyalty – symbol of accepted social standards o the society government function in the name of the Monarchy.
  5. Nominates and accredits members of the House of Lords.
  6. Commander – in – chief of the armed forces.

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