DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOTES

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

Agriculture involves the growing of crops and rearing of animals. Human beings hunted and gathered during the Old Stone Age. But during the new Stone Age, they domesticated plants and animals. The first animal to be domesticated was the dog and later horses, cows, sheep and goats.

Crop farming began around 6000 BC before the domestication of crops; man ate wild fruits and seeds of grasses like wheat and rice that grew wildly in the middle-east. Domestication was either accidental when food remains (seeds) started germinating around cave or it was tedious searching for it rather than cultivating it nearby. This is known as the Neolithic revolution.

Reasons for domestication of crops and animals.

  • Climate change caused animals to migrate far away leding to luck of food.
  • Increase in mans population which required more food form animals.
  • Man and other wild animals competed for the same food leading to decrease in the animals man could rely on.
  • Over-hunting by man depleted stocks of animal he could rely on for food.
  • Natural disasters like forest fires and floods killed many animals making the survivors to migrate far away thus leading to scarcity of land..
  • Hunting and gathering had become insecure and tedious as man could come back empty handed.
  • Hunting as well as gathering would sometimes be hindered by unfavourable weather conditions like snow and rain.
  • Animals were used for transport and security.
  • Animals also provided cloths through hide and skins.

Crop growing.

The transformation or change from hunting and gathering to growing of food crops did not happen suddenly, it took time. Crop growing developed in stages.

Man discovered that some pants had more nutrients than others, so he selected these he considered better or superior.

People realized that wild crops germinated along river valleys where water and fertile soils were available.

The crops grew faster when bushes and other plants were weeded out hence through trial and error people acquired the skill of crop growing.

The earliest crops to be domesticated were

  • Barley
  • Wheat.
  • Sorghum.
  • Rice.
  • Millet.
  • Maize.
  • Yams.
  • Cassava.
  • Potatoes.
  • Grapes.

These crops grew in different soils and climate conditions.

There are many centres of agricultural revolution such as.

  • The Middle East.
  • The Nile valley.
  • The Indus valley (India).
  • The yellow river valley(china)
  • The Danube valley (Europe).

The following are some of the crops that were grown.

Wheat.

It is believed to have originally grown in south west Asia. It spread to Mesopotamia by 600 BC and then Egypt by 3000BC.

Barley.

It was probably the first cereal to be domesticated. It was grown in Syria and the river Euphrates. It later spread to Egypt, India and china by 2000BC.

Sorghum and millet.

They originated from different parts of Africa e.g. West Africa by 1500 BC around Lake Chad and Ethiopia.

Rice.

Originated in the central amorira about 500BC in Mexico.

Yams.

They are probably the 1st of the roots and tuber crops to be domesticate by about 9000BC e.g. in south –east Asia and also south America and Africa.

Domestication of animals.

It is possible that human beings domesticated animals before crop growing.

The 1st animals to be tamed were the dogs and later goats, sheep, cattle and camels. It was a gradual process. Man kept animals for.

  • Security.
  • Meat.
  • Milk.
  • Transport.
  • Hunting.

This depended on the type of animal kept. However the animals are 1st to be tamed and kept in bomas protection, man later learned the art of selecting breeding. Animals were led to good pastures.

Dogs.

They helped in hunting and drove away dangerous animals.

They helped man to herd cattle, sheep and goats.

Goats.

They were domesticated in south west Asia around 5000BC. They reached Africa by 5000BC in Egypt.

Sheep.

They were domesticated after dogs about 9000BC in Iraq. They were also kept in Syria, Europe and Africa.

Cattle.

They were 1st domesticated in south west Asia in turkey around 5800BC and later in Iraq and Iran. They later spread to North Africa and Ethiopia.

Camel.

It originated in North America though found in North Africa. It later spread to Asia and South America.

Benefits of domesticated animals.

  • Animals provided regular food supply in the form of meat and milk.
  • Animal’s skins are used for clothing and beddings among other purpose.
  • The hooves and horns were used as containers or as drinking vessels. The horns were used as communication instruments.
  • Animal bones were used to make a variety of products e.g ornaments, needles and weapons.
  • Animals like camel, horses and donkey were used for transport. This people could travel long distance faster and with heavier loads.
  • Oxen and donkey were used for ploughing the land during cultivation. It therefore increased yields.
  • The dog apart from being man’s friend protected him against dangerous animals.
  • Some animals produced manure which greatly improved agriculture produce.

Early agriculture in Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamia- means “ the land between the rivers’’ it is also known as the Fertile Crescent.

It’s tigris and Euphrates, which flow into the Persian gulf. This fertile region gave rise to one of world’s greatest civilization which began around 3000BC.

Food production around 8000BC. The southern part of Mesopotamia is known as sumeria. It is arid with little rain. The Sumerians practised basin irrigation but later constructed canals and dykes. River deposited silt at it’s lower valley. They invented the;

  • Ox plough
  • Seed drill.
  • Woven basket for the storage of their produce.

Factors that made agriculture possible in Mesopotamia.

  • Availability of water for irrigation from rivers tigris and Euphrates.
  • Sumerians built canals to control flooding and direct water to farm lands.
  • Good fertile soils brought in great quantity by the two rivers, this enriched soils in lower parts of Mesopotamia and made it suitable for growing crops and rearing of cattle.
  • Availability of wild plants and animals like wheat and barley which were suitable for domestication and encouraged settlers to start growing crops.
  • The Sumerians found it easy to farm animals.
  • Demand for food increased as people settled and no longer in need to search for food. Population stared to increase resulting to high demand for food.
  • Availability of farm land. The major concern was to increase the area ready for cultivation; floods were controlled by canal, dike and bridges construction.
  • The invention of farming tools. The sumarians invented farming tools, which enabled them to improve the method of farming, they used implements like ox plough and seed drill.
  • Good transport system. The Sumerians had a fairly good transport system in the form of donkeys. Wheeled carts and canoes.
  • Availability of labour. The availability of slave labour in sumeria facilitated the developing agriculture as farmers were able to cultivate bigger/ large areas using free labour.

The effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.

  • People lived a settled life.
  • People began to specialise in specific occupation.
  • Trade emerged as the people within various professions regularly exchanged their products.
  • Trade led to growth of urban centres.
  • The society began to be stratified as specific classes began to emerge as people developed various measures and degrees of wealth and prestige.
  • Development of laws and government.
  • With increased food production came the need for record-keeping and thus writing was developed.
  • Education centres developed.
  • Important inventions including ox drawn plough, the seed drill and the wheel were made.
  • There was introduction of religion.
  • Due to advancement in mathematics and science, the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia were to construct great buildings lending to architecture.

Early agriculture in Egypt.

Egypt is one of the regions in the world where early agriculture started. It is estimated that about 5000 and 4000 BC, people who were living in the area of the Nile valley learned how to domesticate animals and growing crops.

They grazed cattle, sheep and goats along the lower Nile valley. They kept ducks, geese and hens.

They grew crops like; cotton, beans, wheat, barley, onions, vines, figs, flax and lentils.

Agriculture was practised on the banks of river Nile because the river Nile deposited silt and the lower Nile carried alluvial soils from Ethiopia and east Africa highlands. Canals were dug from the Nile to direct the water to their farms, during the dry seasons.

N/B. canal irrigation replaced basin irrigation. This was followed by the invention of the shadoof which consisted of a long pole that swing up and down with a bucket attached at one end.

The use of shadoof made two harvests in a year possible. The Egyptians invented bronze hoes and the ox-drawn plough.

Factors that favoured the development of agriculture in Egypt.

  • Availability of water for irrigation-Egypt was supplied with plenty of water by the river Nile which has three tributes; white Nile and blue Nile
  • Good fertile soils- when the Nile overflowed its banks, it covered the lower part of the country with a layer of fertile black soil. Farmers made use of this oil to grow their crops.
  • Favourable topography- the land along the Nile valley was gently sloppy which enabled farmers to use basin irrigation to water their crops.
  • Climate- Egypt has a warm sunny climate which helps crops to grow and ripe faster.
  • Indigenous plants- the availability of indigenous crops whereby early ancestors (farmers) got the idea of planting the seeds in wet fertile soils so that they did not have to go out in search for food.
  • Invention of farming tools. Farmers invented and used farming tolls such as the bronze hoe whereas they previously used digging sticks and wooden hoes.
  • Knowledge of weather- Egyptian priest studied the stars and planets to know when the river could flood. They would use this focusting to determine when to prepare the land and plant their crops.
  • Adequate storage facilities- the farmers built storage facilities to keep their grains. This enabled them to grow a lot of food during the years of plenty and then stored it to use during famine times.
  • Support from Egyptian rulers- some Egyptian rulers helped the development of agriculture by supporting farmers e.g king Mene who built dams to control floods.
  • Invention of writing- the Egyptians invented writing during the rule of king mene. This enabled them to keep accurate records of the seasons and volumes of water that came with them.
  • Availability of labour- the majority of the people in the Nile valley were poor and they were ready to offer their services as farm labourers to wealthy farmers.

Effects of early agriculture in Egypt.

  • Improved farming led to increased food production thus the people had enough and regular food supply.
  • The farmers settled down permanently and their living standards improved significantly.
  • Agriculture led to the production of enough supply of food. This in turn led to increase in trading activities.
  • Urban centres like Memphis, thebe and Aswan developed along the Nile valley.
  • Agriculture enables some societies to specialize in other activities since a few people could now produce enough food for all. Specialization took place in handcrafts especially in the manufacturing of tools.
  • Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians discovered writing, arithmetic and geometry. Writing and the calendar were invented for keeping records periodically to predict floods.
  • By 3000BC, the Egyptians were sailing along the Nile, this greatly enhanced transport of goods.
  • The increase of agricultural produce was able to support a new class of people such as priest and soldiers.

The general effects of early agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

  • Adoption of sedentary life. People moved to where their farms were and settled on them.
  • Division of labour. People began to specialize in specific occupations, some concentrated on farming while other made implements, and this led to rise of blacksmiths and potters.
  • Trade. Trade emerged in people within various regions regularly exchange their products for those that lacked.
  • Urbanization. Agricultural areas grew in size and population as people settled there. It gave rise to towns like; ur, Nippur, kish and Babylon.
  • Social classes. The society began to be stratified into specific class in consideration of their wealth and prestige e.g. land owners and blacksmiths.
  • Development of law and government. It became necessary to have regulations that would guide people at a activities to avoid conflict.
  • Formal education. In Egypt hieroglyphics was developed, people especially the upper clans were trained in numeracy and literacy, this was the origin of formal education. In sumeria it was cuneiform.
  • There was invention. Egyptians and Sumerians are credited with important inventions e.g. ox drawn plough and seed drill, wheel was invented in 3000BC and solar calendar in Egypt, Mesopotamia developed science and maths, maths provided the formulae for measuring time, distance and area.
  • Development of religion.
  • There was architecture due to advanced in mathematics and science the inhabitants of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were able to construct great buildings.

The Agrarian Revolution                

This is the term used to describe a time of sudden and radical change in agricultural methods and livestock rearing. The changes were brought about by the invention and use of machines which reduced the number of workers on farms and increased food production. It involved the use of fertilizer and pesticides.

The changes took place in many countries at different times and different ways.

The changes occurred between 1750-1850.

Agrarian revolution in Britain.

Farming methods before the agrarian revolution in Britain.

Up to the 18th century land in west Europe belonged to feudal king who distributed it to the nobility (rich land owners)

They in turn used part of the land and rented the rest to the peasant farmers who paid it by labour.

  1. Before 1750 farmers practised open filed system by which land was divided into 3 positions.
  2. Growing corn and wheat.
  3. Another for beans, peas, barley and oats.
  4. The last land was left to regain fertility.

The open field system did not allow effective farming because land was not fully utilized, the fallow of land; existence of path and cart criss-crossed the land wasting time and labour.

  • The field system discouraged livestock rearing because it was difficult top stop spread of diseases since livestock grazed together.
  • It was difficult to practise selective breading because animals grazed on same piece of land.
  • The early farmers in Europe used simple implements for cultivation e.g. sticks hoes and pangas.
  • Each portion of land was divided into several strips to cultivate every year. There were low agricultural yields to meet the food demand for the growing population.
  • Due to the use of simple tools they practised small scale cultivation.
  • The Europeans farmers used broadcasting method of planting. A lot of seeds therefore wasted.
  • They practised intercropping and mixed farming but it was in effective and produced low yields.
  • The farmers did not use manure or fertilizers hence the soil was depleted off its fertility leading to poor produce or law yields.

Disadvantages of the open field system.

  • Land was not fully utilized because land was left fallow and produced nothing.
  • The foot path and cart hacks that went through untested field wasted land.
  • The practise of leasing field fallow wasted a lot of time and land.
  • Farmers and labourers had to travel over long distances because pieces of land were scattered all over.
  • The open field methos discouraged livestock rearing because diseases spread very easily. It was even more difficult to practise selective breeding.
  • It was not easy to get enough hay (animal feeds) for winter breeding. Farmers were therefore forced to slaughter animals in autumn and have the food salted for later use.
  • The method of farming was in efficient and consequently yielded very low produce that could not cater for the increased European population.
  • Mono cropping and ignorance about the use of manure and fertilizers depleted soil nutrients leading to soil erosion and poor yield.

The changes that occurred during the agrarian revolution.

European countries underwent a lot of changes between 1750-1850. These changes were referred to as agrarian revolution. These were marked by the following.

New system and land ownership.

The use of machines.

New farming methods.

We may now examine them in details.

  • Abolition of fallows. Most of the land had to be used due to increase in population and demand for food. Farmers should no longer afford to leave the land fallow again.
  • New methods of farming. Scientists discovered the use of fertilizers, which increase crop yields e.g. phosphorus and potash for plants.
  • Lord townsheld discovered that clover added nitrogen to the soil. A new crop rotation system of barley, clover, tamps and wheat was introduced on the same plot for 94 years period.
  • Intercropping. Intercropping crops like maize and beans which did not require the same nutrients from the soil grew well; it made farmers realize more yield.
  • Application of scientific principles of farming. The farmer Robert bakewell invented selective breeding of livestock. Animal breeds that were developed were; Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Devon, shorthorn and Hereford. He also improved breeds such as; the Leicester, the Shropshire, the Suffolk and the oxford. He developed pig varieties such as; the Yorkshire, Tamworth and Berkshire.
  • The use of machine. Farmers used iron hoes instead of sticks; they replaced broadcast method by planting in rows. They invented a horse drawn drilling machine by jethro tull in 1701. In 1876, Andrew Meikles invented the mechanical thresher. A binder was added to the reaper so that corn was cut and poured at the same time. Patrick bell invented the mechanical reaper which replaced the sickle in harvesting corn. The use of machine changed agriculture from small scale to large scale.
  • Land enclosure system. Large farms were required instead of small existing strips. The large farms were enclosed by fencing after the small pieces of land were put together,(consolidated) . This was the enclosure movement. It created large farms which allowed the use of the horse drill and crop rotation. The farmers acquired title deeds. They used it to borrow money from financial farm offices. Farmers adopted modern ideas and techniques of farming, books and papers containing latest information on agriculture began to be published.

Factors leading to the agrarian revolution in Britain.

  • The introduction of the enclosure system made landlord realise that they could make money by constructing large scale crop farming and selling farm produce at a profit.
  • The industrialization together with the discovery of medicine brought drastic changes.
  • Industrialization led to invention of machinery that made work easier and demand of raw materials.
  • The mechanization of the farm led to the extensive farming, it enabled farmers to increase average acre crops.
  • Experiments were conducted to improve crop production e.g. lord townsheld came up with the idea of crop rotation where different crops were grown in the field in successive years.
  • New discoveries in the field of medicine led to improvements in agriculture.
  • Scientists discovered the use of fertilizers to improve yield. They also discovered pesticides and fungicides to control plant and animals.
  •  There was rapid population increase which led to increase demand for food. The agriculture sector had to provide enough food for this population. The demand for more food led to the abolition of the open field system in favour of the enclosure system.
  • Better forms of transport such as railway and better roads facilitated agricultural produce to industries and urban even overseas, they could easily transport and sell their food crops.
  • The development of the royal agricultural society in 1838 helped to spread the new and techniques of farming all over the country.

The effects of the agrarian revolution.

  • The use of new and improved farming methods led to high yield or increase of food supply and therefore there was food security.
  • The population of Britain increased rapidly due to increased quality and quantity and a variety of food. Batter diet reduced deaths caused by malnutrition. There were better living standards an high life expectancy.
  • It led to diversification of agriculture by growing of cash crops, citrus fruits and keeping of animals through selective breeding. They introduced e.g. the Leicester sheep.
  • The British farmers established large scale farming (plantation farming) and abandoned subsistence farming. This facilitated mechanization.
  • There was the emergence of new classes. A new class of wealthy land owners emerged, these were the people who had bought and created agricultural estates. The poor farmers were forced to migrate from urban areas to industrial areas that formed the working class.
  • The agrarian revolution led to the development and expansion of agro-based industries. Agricultural produce from crops and livestock’s facilitated the growth of industries.
  • When farming was commercial used, Britain expanded both local and international trade. This made her economy grow.
  • The development of agrarian revolution in Britain led to the improvement of the system in the country e.g. roads and railways were expanded to help in transport of agricultural products to their markets and raw materials to the industries.
  • The revolution also made people to migrate to new lands such as U.S.A, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, and NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTH AFRICA. Most of these people were the poor and landless that had been displaced by the enclosure system.
  • The royal agricultural society (RAS) was formed in 1838 in order to facilitate the exchange of ideas amongst farmers. It enhanced scientific research and innovation.

The agrarian revolution in u.s.a

Introduction.

The agrarian revolution 1st began in Britain in 1750. The revolution later spread to parts of the world such as; Latin America, north America, Asia, Africa and Europe.

The u.s.a is in northern America which covers u.s.a, Canada and Mexico.  Many people migrated to North America starting from the 16th century to escape religious and political persecution. They founded many colonies, but during the agrarian revolution in britan, agriculture in u.s.a also developed due to influence from Britain and other local factors. People learnt t cultivate indigenous crops like; maize, potatoes, tobaccos and pineapples.

They were also cultivated by indigenous American community the red Indians.

Characteristics of agriculture in u.s.a before the agrarian revolution.

  • The original inhabitants of u.s.a were hunters and gatherers.
  • The early migrants practised subsistence farming, they grew crops such as; maize, cassava, beans, tomatoes, pepper, ground nuts and cashew nuts.
  • Farming was done in small scale and could not sustain and so they had to import from Britain e.g. food.
  • The enclose system made many people to migrate and settle in America especially landless.
  • These who migrated introduced new methods of farming so as to grow enough food for consumption and export.
  • Many people acquired new land and cleared it for agriculture, many of them died of diseases.
  • Others who went to America included labourers and crafts men who were looking for better life.

The changes that occurred.

  • The immigrant’s settlers introduced horses, sheep, pigs, fowls, seeds and plants from Europe.
  • They made a number of improvement to the machines, they used in Europe e.g. JOHN DECRE invented the steel plough; CYRUS MACORMICK established a factory in Chicago. ELI WHIRTEEY invented the cotton grin, JOHN PERKINS developed the refrigerator. JOHN GORRIE was granted the 1st American patent for refrigeration machine. The machine preserved food for a longer time.
  • After the invention of refrigeration, car case was transported by train to meet packing factories, before live animals were transported.
  • Due to differences in soil fertility and climate several agricultural zones emerged e.g. the south was a cotton zone, the central region produced maize and the northern zone produced wheat.
  • Large scale farming began due to mechanization before cotton and sugarcane plantation depended on slave labour.
  • The invention of the telegraph of ALEXANDER GRAPHER enhanced communication.
  • Science and research resulted to better highbred seeds and different strains of livestock. There was use of fertilizers and pest control measures.

Factors that led to the agrarian revolution in north America.

  • Immigration- the poor people who lost their land in Europe due to the enclosure system migrated to north America with new skills and knowledge, they also took with them animals like; cattle, sheep and horses.
  • Modern farming- plantation farming, crop zoning, and use of highbred seeds, farm machinery and agricultural education transformed agriculture to a big industry.
  • Availability of land- u.s.a was a vast country inhabited with very few people. Therefore there was a lot of land available for all kinds of agriculture led to creation of agricultural zones e.g. cotton and corn belts. Different climates zones accommodate a wide variety of crops.
  • Labour- in the 18th century, many slaves were transported to the new world including u.s.a they provided cheap labour in cotton, sugar and tobacco plantation.
  • Machinery- the development of machinery and other scientific discoveries encouraged farming. JOHN PEER invented the steel plough, CYPRUS MECCOMICK invented a reaper, refrigeration and canning preserved food at a low temperatures.
  • Government policies- the American government supported the agriculture sector. It invested heavily in science and technology. It also granted financial assistance and loans for the purchase and development of land measures were put in place to protect farmers against competition from imported agricultural produce.
  • Infrastructure- the development of transport and communication network e.g. roads, railways and water ways enhanced and facilitated agriculture.

Effects of agrarian revolution in u.s.a

  • Diversification of agriculture through the introduction of new farm animals and crops brought by European immigrants.
  • The discovery and invention of new machines such as combined harvesters, steel plough and the reaping machines enabled American farmers to bring more land under cultivation.
  • New methods of farming e.g. use of fertilizers, highbred seeds and control increase food production especially maize and wheat.
  • It led to expansion of agricultural related industries e.g. canning and refrigeration of food expended the milk and meat industries.
  • Mechanization of agriculture replaced slaves and other labourers on farm. It made them move to urban areas.
  • The transport system of water, railway and road systems enabled the transportation of farm inputs to farms and agricultural products to the markets.
  • The expansion of food productions increased trade between u.s.a and Western Europe. It boosted the economy of America.
  • There was increased production in u.s.a due to availability of food.
  • It facilitated research and scientific inventions especially in the field of agriculture. These improved crops and varieties of animals.

The food situation in Africa and the rest of the third world.

The 3rd world refers to the less developed countries in Africa, asia and south America. Most of the developing countries were colonized by Europeans. They practised traditional agriculture.

Colonization led to the introduction of new crops but they continued to have weak economics and depend mainly on relief food imported from the developed countries many years after their independence.

Many factors have led to food shortage in Africa and the rest of developing world.

Factors leading to food shortages in Africa.

  • The rate of population is higher than the rate of food production.
  • Poor land use and agricultural practise like traditional farming methods and lack of modern means of agriculture like fertilizers and machines.
  • Some countries experience adverse weather conditions e.g. droughts and floods.
  • Desertification in formerly arable land has a negative effect on food production.
  • Over emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops.
  • Rural –urban migration of youth people in search of white collar jobs deprives rural areas of labour force, for food production.
  • Many lack funds to purchase required farm inputs e.g fertilizers and pesticides and also money to higher labour.
  • Political upheavals and instability in many countries prevent people from concentrating on food production and use money to purchase ammunitions.
  • Neglect of drought- resistance crops such as cassava and millet due to miscohieved attitudes.
  • Poor and in adequate storage facilities have reduced the availability of food. Great amounts harvested are wasted due to poor storage.
  • Pest and diseases has destroyed large amount of food crops and many animals like tsetse fly has led to loss of many animals.
  • Poor infrastructure discouraged farmers from increasing their food production. A lot is wasted due to poor transport to markets.
  • Over reliance of food aid or relief food and other forms of aid has created a dependence attitude in many African countries.
  • Poor economic planning by most third world government. A lot of emphasis is put on other development projects at the expense of agriculture and food production.
  • Poor land tenure systems where few European farmers own most of the best land, yet a small portion is utilized. On the other hand many indigenous Africans own very small piece of land.
  • Developing countries have a foreign debt burden as they depend on rich lending countries and agencies like IMF and World Bank.
  • The HIV/AIDS pandemic has led to the death of many among the work force reducing agricultural labour of the young and economically productive.

The effect of food shortage.

  • Many people have lost their lives due to drought and famine.
  • Increased suffering among millions of malnourished children and mothers who are sickly and weak.
  • It has created problems among societies like stealing food.
  • It has caused refugee problem in Africa because of drought and famine has caused people to migrate to other countries.
  • Lack of food hampers economic development e.g. children can’t work or pursue education when hungry.
  • Food shortage has led to dependence on food aid from rich countries which test genetically processed food; the side effects of such foods are yet to be known.
  • It adversely affects agricultural based industries e.g. banking and confectionary, milk processing and sugar factories inevitability leads to unemployment.

Solutions and steps taken to solve food shortage.

  • Land reclamation- this is the turning it potential land that was wasted into productive use through irrigation of arid land, drawing swampy places, clearing bushes and reclaiming deserts.
  • Policies- agricultural policies should be reformulated from concentration on cash crops to food production.
  • Extension services-like research information, dissemination and advice to farmers are vital for agriculture.
  • Family land use- families should be discouraged from land fragmentation and encourage a sizeable portion of land to be put under crops so as to have self sufficiency in house hold.
  • Research- extensive research has been carried out in research institutions such as Kenya agricultural research institute (KARI) on the highbred maize such as katumani.
  • Infrastructure- the development in transport, communication, storage, marketing and banking facilities should be improved to link farming areas to towns to provide market.
  • Farming methods- developing nations need to introduce new farming methods in order to increase food production.
  • Loans and grants- African government should practise loans to farmers to buy farm machinery and other inputs to encourage farmers.
  • Civil wars- government need to take immediate action to stop further civil wars and solve conflicts by peaceful methods.
  •  Family planning- educating people on the need for family planning so that families have only the number of children whom they can feed and provide for.
  • Environmental conservation- reforestation, proper utilization and checking soil erosion can led to increase food production.
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