The expulsion of the Portuguese from East Africa was influenced by several reasons. These reasons are outlined below:
- Heavy Taxes: The Portuguese imposed heavy taxes on the inhabitants, which caused resentment and dissatisfaction among the local population.
- Destruction and Looting: The Portuguese burnt and looted towns such as Faza, Mombasa, Kilwa, Gede, among others, causing destruction and loss for the local communities.
- Destruction of Mosques and Madrassas: The Portuguese targeted religious institutions, destroying mosques and madrassas, which further fueled anger and hostility towards them.
- Use of Superior Weapons: The Portuguese had superior weapons compared to the inhabitants, and they used this advantage to oppress and subjugate the local population.
- Hatred and Constant Wars: The mistreatment by the Portuguese led to a deep-seated hatred between Muslims and the Portuguese. This resulted in constant wars between the two sides, spanning across all the city-states along the East African coast.
- Sultan of Oman’s Intervention: In 1696, the Muslims were defeated by the Portuguese. Seeking assistance for their cause, they approached the Sultan of Oman, who called upon Imam Seif bin Sultan to lead the expedition to expel the Portuguese from their territories.
- Siege of Mombasa: The Arabs, led by Imam Seif bin Sultan, laid a siege on Mombasa, which lasted for three years. Eventually, they were able to defeat the Portuguese and regain control of the region.
- Complete Expulsion: By 1700, the Portuguese were completely expelled from the East Coast of Africa, with the exception of Mozambique, which remained under Portuguese rule until 1974.
These reasons, including heavy taxation, destruction and looting, hatred and constant wars, and the intervention of the Sultan of Oman, all contributed to the eventual expulsion of the Portuguese from East Africa.