The emergence of the Shia can be attributed to several factors. Here are five factors that led to their emergence:
- The Hashimite Origin: The Shia based their claim on their Hashimite origin clan, to which the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) also belonged. This lineage gave them a sense of legitimacy and authority in the Islamic community.
- Support of the Shia and Mawali: The Shia secured the support of the Shia community, who were discontented with the Umayyad rule. They also gained the support of the Mawali, who were looking for an opportunity to strike against the Umayyads. This support helped strengthen the Shia movement.
- Discontent with Umayyad Rule: After a short period of time, many people who were dissatisfied with the Umayyad rule joined the Shia. The Umayyads’ policies and actions, such as oppression and corruption, created a sense of discontent among the people and made them more receptive to the Shia message.
- Headquarters in Baghdad: The Shia Abbasids set their headquarters in Baghdad, Iraq. This strategic location allowed them to consolidate their power and gain control over the Eastern part of the Muslim empire. The capture of important territories further strengthened the Shia movement.
- Leadership of Abu Abbas As-Saffah: Abu Abbas As-Saffah, declared the caliph of the Abbasid dynasty, played a crucial role in the emergence of the Shia. His leadership and military victories against the Umayyads, including the defeat of Umayyad caliph Marwan II, solidified the Shia’s position and established the Abbasid dynasty.
These factors, including their Hashimite origin, support from the Shia and Mawali, discontent with Umayyad rule, strategic headquarters in Baghdad, and the leadership of Abu Abbas As-Saffah, all contributed to the emergence and rise of the Shia.