Explain six measures taken by the colonial government to ensure adequate supply of labour to white settler farms in Kenya. (12 marks)
- Taxation – The introduction of hut tax from 1902 and poll tax in 1911 ensured that Africans sold their labour to get money to pay tax.
- Master servant ordinance – It was introduced in 1906 and it made it an offence for any African to evade duty. Duty evasion led to imprisonment, fine or both.
- Low wages – Africans were remunerated lowly in order to make them completely dependent on selling their cheap labour.
- Forced recruitment – There was forced recruitment of labour for the settlers.
- The Native registration ordinance – it was introduced in 1915 and it enforced registration of all adult male Africans to facilitate labour recruitment.
- Creation of reserves – Africans were restricted in reserves which were over crowded hence Africans were forced to leave reserves to go out and work on European firms.
- The Kipande system:- Africans were to carry Kipande which was a form of identification on which personal details were written. This was done to curb desertion from the employer.
- Nor they circular – Africans chiefs were to encourage local people into wage labour.
- Squatter system:– Arbitrary land alienation led to Africans being squatters on the land that was once theirs. For them to keep on staying on the land they had to provide labour on the same land but working for the settlers.
- Cash crops – Africans were forbidden to grow cash crops. This made them not to have an alternative source of income, hence they provided labour on the white men’s farms. Colonial administration confiscated livestock to make Africans poor, thus seek employment.