Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two factors which characterize small scale farming. (1 mark)

  1. State two effects of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production. (1 mark)

  1. State four methods of treating water for domestic use. (2 marks)

  1. Name the vegetative part of each of the following crops which is propagated. (2 marks)
    i) Sweet potatoes _________________________________________________________
    ii) Cassava _________________________________________________________
    iii) Bananas _________________________________________________________
    iv) Oranges _________________________________________________________
  2. State two ways by which soil pH may affect crop production. (1 mark)

  1. State three causes of blossom end rot in tomatoes. (1½ marks)

  1. Name two methods of weed control in pasture. (1 mark)

  1. State four problems that farmers are likely to face when marketing their produce. (2 marks)

  1. State four effects of high temperature on crop production. (2 marks)

  1. Name four suitable sites of agro forestry. (2 marks)

  1. List four post harvesting practices. (2 marks)

  1. State three functions of the Coffee Board of Kenya. (1½ marks)

  1. Give four factors determining the quality of hay. (2 marks)

  1. List four methods of fertilizer application. (2 marks)

  1. Give four objectives of land settlement and resettlement in Kenya. (2 marks)

  1. List four methods used to drain farm land. (2 marks)

  1. Give three benefits of conserving forage. (1½ marks)

  1. State three problems facing agriculture based women groups in Kenya. (1½ marks)


  1. – Small size of land
  • Limited capital
  • Limited tools / equipment
  • Less labour is required
  • Maximum use of available labour Any 2 (2 x ½ = 1mk)

  1. i) Shortage of labour
    ii) A lot of money is spent on treatment and hospitalization of people with HIV/AIDS
    iii) Leads to low food supply and poverty due to loss of market for agricultural products
    iv) Resources used in treatment of HIV and AIDS could be used in Agricultural production
    v) Less time is spent o farming activities because a lot of time is spent looking after people with HIV/AIDS.
    Any 2 (2 x ½ = 1mk)

  2. i) Boiling water
    ii) Chemical treatment / chlorination/ addition of sodium salts
    iii) Filtration-n
    iv) Aeration
    v) Storage over a period of time / sedimentation / decantation
    Any (4x ½ = mks)

  3. i) Stem cutting/vine/tuber (½ mk)
    ii) Stem cutting (½mk)
    iii) Suckers (½mk)
    iv) Bud/budwood (½mk)
    (4x ½=2mks)

  4. i) Determine the availability of crop nutrients activities in the soil
    ii) It determines the type of crop to be grown in a given area
    iii) It influences attack of crops by pests, weeds and diseases
    iv) It influence soil structure Any (2x½= 1mk)

  5. i) Water stress/ insufficient water/ too much water
    ii) Calcium deficiency
    iii) Excessive nitrogen in the early stages of growth (3x½= 1½mks)

  6. i) Timely land preparation
    ii) Slashing
    iii) Application of selective herbicides
    iv) Uprooting of weeds Any (2x ½=1mk)
  • Perishability
  • Limited elasticity of demand
  • Seasonality
  • Lack of market information
  • Bulkiness
  • Changes of supply
  • Storage
  • Lack of efficiency in marketing
  • Poor transport system
  • Changes in market demand Any (4x ½= 2mks)
  1. i) Increases evaporation hence wilting
    ii) Increases rate of growth (maturity)
    iii) Increases quality of some crops e.g. oranges or pineapples
    iv) Increases incidences of pests and diseases.
  2. i) Farm boundaries
    ii) Homestead
    iii) Terraces
    iv) River banks/ water catchments areas
    v) Steep slopes /slopes
    vi) Within pasture land Any (4x ½=2mks)
  3. i) Threshing / shelling
    ii) Drying
    iii) Cleaning
    iv) Sorting and grading
    v) Dusting
    vi) Processing
    vii) Packaging Any (4x ½=2mks)
  4. i) Planning, monitoring regulation of coffee growing.
    ii) Licensing and control of coffee factories
    iii) Regulation, control of quality of raw coffee
    iv) Regulation of export/ import of coffee.
    v) Carrying out promoting of research development in coffee production , processing technology
    vi) Providing co-ordination training for any sector of coffee industry
    (3x ½= 1½ mks)
  5. i) Forage species used
    ii) Stage of harvesting hence leaf stem ratio
    iii) Length of drying period
    iv) Weather condition during drying process
    v) Condition of storage structure Any (4x ½=2mks)
  6. i) Broadcasting
    ii) Placement
    iii) Drip
    iv) Foliar spraying
    v) Side dressing / band application. Ring application Any (4x ½=2mks)
  7. i) Settle landless citizens.
    ii) To ease population pressure on land
    iii) To increase agricultural productivity
    iv) To improve people’s standard of living
    v) To create employment Any (4x ½=2mks)
  8. i) Open ditches/ canals/ furrows/ channels
    ii) French drains
    iii) Pumping of water
    iv) Underground pipes
    v) Cumbered beds
    vi) Breaking hard pan by sub soiling/ chisel ploughing
    Any (4x ½=2mks)
  9. i) Provide feed during period of scarcity / distribute available forage throughout the year
    ii) Ensure better proper utilization of land
    iii) Can be sold for money (3x ½=1½mks)
  10. i) Lack of managerial skills especially in accounting and book keeping
    ii) Lack of technological know how to improve ways of carrying out certain agricultural activities they are involved in
    iii) Lack of funding
    iv) Limited access to credit facilities
    v) Low level of education of women especially in rural areas
    vi) Women’s multiple roles and responsibilities hinder them from devoting more time to their groups.
    (Any 3x ½= 1½ mks)
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