DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
Definition of trade
It’s from two wards; Trans which means across, beyond, over or to the far side of and port meaning the carrying of goods. It’s therefore the carrying of goods and people from one place to another.
Traditional forms of transport
These are human port rage, pack of animals, raft, boats and sailing ships
- Human port rage
This was carried on heads, shoulders and backs
- It was readily available
- It was cheap methods
- It was flexible because it hard no fixed times for departure and arrival
- It was time-consuming as movement was slow
- There porter could carry only a small load
- It was tiresome, forcing the porter to make frequent rest
- Porters were affected by adverse weather condition
- Pack and draught animals
Animals were initially domesticated only for food, later they did carry goods and people. At first the load was placed directly on the animals back, later, some of the animals began to pull vehicles. Animals like ox, donkey, horse, mule, elephant, camel, reindeer and dogs
- Animals are cheap to maintain since they require only feeding
- Accidents are rare since animals do not over speed
- Animals can be used in accessible areas
- Some animals can sense danger by sniffing out an enemy from a distance.
- Animals do not need fuel apart from teaching and training
- Animals may be attacked by wild animals
- It is slow and tedious mode of transport
- The amounts of load which animals can carry are low when compared to motor vehicle.
- Pack animals are stubborn when tired or heavily loaded
- The animals can only cover a limited distance
- Vehicles without wheels
The earliest vehicles were crude contraptions without wheels. As they were cumbersome to drag along the ground, they moved slowly and carried small loads.
The sleigh (sledge)
The sleigh glided on runners placed from back to front. It was commonly used in the snow terrains of northern Europe and North America. It was initially pulled by people; later teams of dogs were harnessed to it. The reindeer was also used in some parts of the arctic and sub- arctic regions.
It was v-shaped with the narrower side harnessed to a horse or dogs using a pole. The broader side which was dragged along the ground, had cross-pieces that served as a base for the load. The travois was most commonly used in the North America because of its treeless, dry and flat terrain.
The sedan chair
This was a special chair fitted with two poles running on the sides from back to front. Four men carried it on these poles.
The development of wheel
The idea of the wheel was developed from the use of wooden rollers. These loose lengths of logs placed under a load. The load was then pulled forward over the rollers. As each roller was fixed at the back. It was carried and placed again at the front.
The wheel in Mesopotamia
It was first used by Sumerians in Mesopotamia about 5000 years ago. It was solid, heavy and fixed to the axle. The spoke wheel was developed around 2500 bc. It was used on a horse-drawn chariot, making them lighter and swifter. These were the 1st vehicles to be used in warfare.
Later rubber strip was added on the outside. A metal strip, instead of rubber, was introduced by Assyrians. All these made the wooden spoke wheel more durable. It was also used in shadoofs, a pulley system with which farms were irrigated in Mesopotamia.
Impact of the wheel in Mesopotamia
- It enabled the Sumerians built war chariots which increased mobility of the solders.
- It enhanced transportation of people and goods.
- The chariots gave the Sumerians solders height advantage over their enemies, enabling them to fight more efficient.
- It promoted trade through efficiency of transportation of goods and traders
- It facilitated the construction of roads
- It enhance the making of pots of high quality
- It promoted early agriculture as the wheel was used on shadoof for irrigation.
The wheel in china
They invented the wheel about 4000 years ago. They used the potter’s wheel to produce fine porcelain vessels. They were fixed on horse- drawn chariots and carts drawn water buffaloes for carrying people and goods.
The wheel in Africa
It spread through Egypt from south East Asia when the country was invaded by the Hyksos in 1800 BC. The invaders used horse drawn chariots. When they were defeated, the Egyptians used the wheel to make their own carts, this spread to other parts of Africa.
The wheel in Europe
The Greeks were the 1st Europeans to use the wheel, during the Olympics which were held every four years; one event was a fourteen- kilometre chariot race.
Military chariots were 1st used during the reign of Alexander the great. Using horse –drawn chariots and wheeled siege to wars, the Greeks conquered turkey, Persia, parts of India and Egypt.
The Romans learned the use of the wheel from the Greeks. They improved two- wheeled chariots for sport, postal services and warfare.
The 1st means of water transport was just a log to which a man could cling, the early people must have discovered that they could hold onto a tree trunk, remain afloat and actually be transported.
The earliest vessels
It’s made up of several logs tied together. This helped to improve on the stability of the log. A long pole reached the bottom of the river was to propel and steer the raft. However, it was still difficult to move upstream.
The dug-out canoe
The earliest boats were simply dug-out tree trunk. The hallowed out section provided room for passengers. These were used for crossing rivers over shallow waters and fishing , but they were not unstable.
Oars were used to push or row the boat against water currents thus increasing the speed and power. They were used by Egyptians, Romans, Phoenicians and Greeks.
They were propelled by wind; it was done by trapping winds in cloth that was attached to a mast on the boat. They had greater speed than oar-driven boats.
They were larger and bigger than the sailing boats. A mast was erected in the centre of the vessel and a square sail attached on it.
Limitations of early forms of water transport
- They could easily sink during strong wind and storms.
- They could only move down stream as their movement relied on water current.
- They carried only a few passengers and goods at a time
- Passengers and goods were exposed to the elements of weather.
Development in modern means of transport
The 1st road to be built was by Romans about 312bc. The main aim was to ensure rapid movement of troops and administrators.
Every region was accompanied by an engineer to supervise construction and maintenance. The building was done by soldiers, assisted by local labourers.
The roads had foundations of up to one and half meters deep and made with whatever local material that was available, usually heavy rocks were thrown in 1st, followed by other layers of smaller stones and rubble. There was a drain on each side and kerbstones to prevent the surface from sliding outwards.
The 1st roman road called the apian way, connected Rome and Capua, a distance of 209km. at the height of the empire; over 85000km of roads had been built.
Characteristics of roman roads
- They were constructed straight
- They were raised high above the ground to avoid flooding.
- They were well drained on each side
- They were built with bridges across rivers and tunnels through hills.
John macadam (1756-1830) devised a faster but cheaper way of constructing roads. He realised that ordinary ground could still be used to make good roads if it was kept dry. He removed only the top soil and then put three layers of small, broken stones, carriage wheels were used to press the stones tightly and grit to break off and bind everything together. The surface was curved to allow water to run off into ditches on the sides. The soil underneath remained dry and made the road durable.
These roads were later improved by adding tar to produce a water proof surface called tar-Mac. The word was coined from the word tar, and from macadam’s name.
Advantage of macadam roads.
- They were all- weather roads
- The roads were wide hence could accommodate more traffic
- They were durable
- They were straight hence reduced accidents
- They had a smooth surface hence the motoring surface was comfortable.
It means two wheels; it was invented in 1700 by a Frenchman de sivrac. It has two wheels were placed in front of the other on a framework rather than side by side on a single axle.
It’s also known as the hobby horse, this kind of a bicycle was 1st used in 1820. There was no transmission of power to the wheels. The rider sat on it and pushed it forward with his feet and some speed was built up.
The penny farthing
The name was derived from the British coins, the penny, and the farthing, because one wheel was bigger than the other. The rider transmitted power from pedals attached to the front bigger wheel over which the he sat.
The safety bicycle
It was developed from 1884. Chain gearing was invented by Englishman J.K Stanley. It consisted of two sprocket-wheels, the bigger one attached to the pedals in the centre and the smaller one to the rear wheel.
Another Englishman, J.B Dunlop, invented the pneumatic tyres which replace the uncomfortable solid rubber ones.
The last improvement was the invention of the free-wheel which allowed the rear wheel to rotate when the rider was not pedalling.
The motor-cycle is a motorised bicycle. The 1st was made by Gottlied Daimler in 1855. The frame was made stronger and wheels wider, an engine and a gear box were added to ease riding. It was faster than a bicycle and cheaper than an automobile, it could access rough terrain, carried only one passenger or a small load.
The motor vehicle
It was not a sudden invention of any one person. It was the result of a contribution of many people over several hundred years, in 1789, a French engineer, and Joseph Cugnot, built a three-wheeled vehicle powered by a steam engine. It moved at a slow, walking pace, although it could carry passengers, it was designed to transport cannons.
In 1858 petroleum oil was discovered in the U.S.A in 1859, Frenchman Etienne Lenoir developed the internal combustion engine instead of steam, the engine used petroleum vapour which was ignited to give an internal explosion.
An Australian, Marcu, built two vehicles but they were banned from the roads because they were too noisy.
A German engineer, Nicolas Otto also made significant contributions to design of the engine.
In 1886, Daimler built a four-wheeled car with a high-speed petrol engine. A converted horse-drawn carriage, this vehicle was the forerunner of the modern car.
Towards the end of the 1880s, a French company, Panhard-levassor, bought the right to use Daimlers engine within a few years, their factory produced its 1st car.
Advantages of road transport
- It is the cheapest form of transport over short distance
- Road transport is flexible
- Its faster compared to water and rail transport
- Can be used by many means e.g. human and animals
Disadvantages of road transport
- Accidents are high on roads, leading to loss of lives.
- Traffic congestion leading to jams
- Exhaust fumes motor vehicles cause air pollution
- It is expensive to construct all weather roads.
It was developed from the idea of vehicles moving along a fixed track. The 1st railways were used in Germany from 16th c in the coal mines.
The steam engine
Thomas savery, a British engineer, designed and built the 1st steam- drive pump which was used to pump water out of coal mine.
In 1780, a Scottish engineer, James watt developed a smaller, more efficient steam engine.
1n 1801, Richard Trevithick installed watts engine in a vehicle which ran on an ordinary road.
In 1813, Christopher bracket and William Hedler made another steam engine, nickname puffing Billy because of the smoke it produced.
The introduction of locomotion by George Stephenson and Robert which was the 1st steam locomotive to pull a passenger train along a public railway from Stockton to Burlington.
The diesel engine
In 1892, a German engineer, Rudolph diesel designed a heavy-oil engine to work on a compression ignition system. His engine, built in 1895, achieved compression far higher than that required for self-ignition in order to obtain the greatest possible efficiency.
The electric engine
The 1st electric railway system was built in Britain in 1883. Designed by Siemens brothers and john Hopkinson. Electric 240 volts, was picked up from a third rail.
In U.S.A many instillations involving electric tramways were built in the 1890s. They were operated by power taken either from overhead cables or live rail. They were designed by F.J. Sprague and C.J van depoele.
The trans-Siberian railway line.
This is found in Russia. It was built in 1891 from Leningrad to Vladivostok on the shores of the Pacific Ocean
The great American railway
It is found in the U.S.A it starts on the Atlantic coast and stretches to the Pacific Ocean coast on the west.
The Canadian pacific railway
It is found in Canada. It was built in 1881 and links the eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean to the western coast of the Pacific Ocean.
Advantages of rail transport
- It is suitable for transportation of heavy bulky goods
- It is economical for transportation of goods and services over a long distance.
- Electric trains are a fast means of transport.
- It follows a regular timetable which enables passengers to plan their movement.
- It is safe means of transport as accidents are rare.
- Underground trains help to reduce traffic congestion on the roads.
Disadvantages of railway transport
- It is expensive to construct railways and buy the wagons.
- Accidents though rare are always fatal when they occur.
- Diesel engines emit a lot of smoke leading to air pollution.
- Rail transport is heavily affected by terrain.
- Railway transport is not flexible and has to be supplemented by other means of transport.
Impact of railway transport
- It has promoted urbanization as towns have developed along railway lines.
- It led to the development of international trade as bulky goods could be easily transported to the markets.
- It led to industrial revolution in Europe as raw materials could be transported to industrial and finished products to markets.
- It opened remote continental interiors of Africa, Asia and n. America for agricultural and mineral exploitation.
- It helped the colonialist to establish effective control over their colonies through quick movement of administrators and troops.
- Railway transport has offered employment to many people.
- It led to widespread migration and settlement of people.
In the 18th c. it was discovered that steam power could be used to drive machines. In 1736, an Englishman, Jonathan hulls, built a boat driven by steam power. It was tested on the river Avon, but it was not a success. The 1st successful steam boat was built in 1783 by a Frenchman, Marquis de Jouffroy. It was driven by peddle-wheels, one on each side of the hull.
In 1787, John Fitch, an American, built a steam boat driven by sis oars on each side. In 1790 he built another ship which could travel at 112km/h with it he began services on the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Trenton.
Another was built by Scottish engineer, William Symington. His steamship was driven by two paddle wheels. Then Robert Fulton, an American, built the clermont, which was driven by two paddle-wheels. In 1807, the clermont began a regular passenger service between albanyon on the Hudson River and New York.
A propeller under the ship replaced paddle-wheels. The 1st propeller steamer was the Archimedes, built in 1838.
Three developments which increased the popularity of steamships included-:
In 1854, John Elder invented an economical two –cylinder compound engine which cut fuel consumption by about 60%.
The Suez Canal was opened in 1869; it shortened the route to the east by about 5000km.
Coal stations were opened all along the main sea-routs. It was no longer necessary to carry a lot of fuel and so there was more cargo space.
Development of modern ships.
The modern cruise ship is a luxurious ship designed to offer entertainment to passengers as the ship takes a cruise in the ocean.
These ships are about 3oom long and carry up to 2000 passengers
A canal is a man-made water channel usually dug on a straight course. The main reason for the construction of the canals in Europe and North America was the poor conditions of the roads and also shorten distance.
They also saves costs by reducing the distance this means they are cheap.
It’s deeper and can be used by ocean-going vessels. They were constructed to link the industrial centres to ports or to shorten routes, like the Manchester-Liverpool canal, the Suez Canal and Panama Canal.
Advantages of water transport
- It enhanced the exploration of the world especially after the discovery of the magnetic compass
- It promoted trade through transportation of bulky goods between continents.
- It reduced the cost of transport by providing the cheapest means of transporting bulky goods over long distances.
- Promoted exploitation of natural resources under the water.
Disadvantages of water transport
- Its slow means of moving passengers and cargo.
- Construction of port facilities is expensive.
- It can only be used by countries that are bordered by oceans, hence land-locked countries are disadvantaged.
- May lead to pollution of water through oil spills.
- Delays are caused by port congestion especially where adequate loading and unloading facilities are lacking.
Impact of water transport
- It is a convenient means of transporting bulky goods
- It is a major source of employment
- It has boosted international trade
- It is a major source of government revenue.
- It has enhanced inter-continental connections
- It has expanded mans knowledge about the deep seas.
- Some towns emerged where there are harbours and ports.
The desire to fly was a dream of mankind for many countries; some pioneers were even killed while trying to get airborne.
Kits were probably the 1st objects to be flown.
The 1st was a hot air balloon designed and built by two brothers, Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier. It covered only eight kilometres that lasted twenty minutes.
Brazilian inventor, alberto Santos dumont, developed the 1st airship in 1898. Although it was a balloon, it was powered by an engine and called therefore be steered.
The 1st successful heavier than air powered flight was made by Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the U.S.A.
Air transport and aircraft design advanced rapidly. By 1909, aeroplanes were being commercially produced, in 1911, the 1st airmail services was introduced.
The jet engine
The demand for higher speeds for military planes produced the gas turbine, which made possible the jet plane.
The jet engine gave greater power and higher speed to aircraft. In 1970s, the jumbo jets were introduced which can cruise long distances at speeds of up to 1000km/h with 400 passengers on board.
Today, the Concorde is the fastest passenger aircraft; it cruises at up to 2000km/h.
Impact of air transport
- It has promoted international trade especially perishable goods.
- It provides transport to in accessible remote areas.
- It has revolutionised warfare as countries are able to strike their enemies with precision.
- It has contributed immensely to space exploration through space shuttle and satellites.
- Air transport has enhanced international co-operation and understanding.
- It has enhanced emergency and relief services for example; it is used by flying doctors in emergency situations.
- Accidents though rare are often fatal for all passengers and crew.
The discovery of the telescope in 1610 by Galileo Galilei made space exploration easier; astronomers began to study the moon through a telescope in the early 1600s.
It was invented and 1st used by the Chinese around 1000ad. They were used as weapons and space exploration.
In a simple rocket, burning fuel produces large amounts of gas. This is freed out of a hole at back, causing the rocket to move forward.
It’s a small body that travels in orbit around a large body used as space exploration more than a hundred satellites are launched into the orbit around the earth by various countries every year.
They are used to facilitate communication between the continents.
They help geologists to prospect for minerals and assist astronomers in the study of the solar system.
This craft is partly a rocket and partly plane. It is propelled into space like a rocket, bit it returns to earth like a aeroplane. Presently, several robotic missions have been sent into space. There is a permanent international space station orbiting the earth.
Advantages of space exploration.
- It has enhanced human understanding of the universe like Pluto.
- It has led to the development of advanced air defence system, like the American star wars system.
- It has enhanced effective mapping and surveillance on earth through global positioning system.
- Space exploration has encouraged space tourism.
Disadvantages of space exploration
- Accidents though rare have fatal consequences.
- It is very expensive and preserve of only the rich nations.
- It is an activity that contributes to environmental degradation e.g. degradation of the ozone layer.
Impact of modern means of transport.
- An efficient transport network reaching all corners of every country has resulted in great expansion of both internal and external trade.
- There is migration of people from one part of the world to another is faster and easier.
- Advancement of transport made people settle in places where there were good means of transport.
- Faster transport has resulted into a quick transfer of ideas in technology.
- Farmers can easily transport their produce even to the most distant markets anywhere in the world.
- Raw materials have to be transported to factories, while finished goods have to reach markets.
- Enhance tourism as people require efficient transport services to visit areas of attraction in other parts of the world.
- Modern transport has created millions of jobs as aeroplanes, ship, trains and cars have to be built and serviced.
- It’s new possible to rush help to victims even in very remote places by air.
- Modern means of transport have expanded mans knowledge about universe and deep seas.
- It has also encouraged the exploitation of natural resources.
- Government benefit from revenue collection for the issuance of several types of licences and sale petroleum.
- Security is also boosted because personnel and officials can be moved easily from one part to another.
- There are accidents which lead to loss of many lives and causing permanent injuries.
- Increasing numbers of vehicles have resulted in serious traffic jams in many cities.
- Vehicles emit dangerous gases into the atmosphere.
- Fast and efficient systems of transport have changed the nature of modern warfare. Troops can be moved quickly to trouble spots.
- The rapid interaction of people encourages spread of diseases e.g. aids, avian flu, ebola.
Definition of communication.
It’s the sending and receiving of messages through a medium. This involves the receiver sending back a response to the sender.
Factors to consider for effectiveness.
- The languages of the receiver of the message.
- It’s also important to consider the distance of the receiver from the sender.
- Consider the urgency of the message.
- The cost of sending messages is also another factor to consider.
- Also consider the geographical factors in which the receiver is operating from.
Traditional forms of communication.
As people began to live together, they found it necessary to share ideas, information and experiences.
- Fire and smoke signals.
It was lit on raised ground, where it could be seen from a distance. It was used to send urgent message i.e. warning of an approaching invasion.
- They were visible
- The message was delivered very fast
- It was a cheaper way of passing a message.
- The message was limited to the users and outsiders could not understand.
- It was difficult to start fire in wet conditions.
- Smoke was not visible on a cloudy misty day and on a windy day it is easily blown away.
- The signals were of no use if no one was on the lookout.
- Messages could only be sent over short distance.
- They conveyed limited range of messages.
- Drum beats
It was paled by skilled drummers who could imitate the sound of speech. Drums were used to announce village festivities, weddings, deaths or even to summon warriors to assemble in a squire. Drum signals could be relayed from one village to another.
- They could relay a wide range of messages.
- Messages could be conveyed over a wide area.
- Could be used at any time, e.g. day or night, wet or dry season.
- The message conveyed faster.
- The message could not be clearly interpreted
- It needed the expertise of skilled drummers.
- There is no privacy of the message sent.
- The distance covered was short.
Runners were often sent to deliver messages particularly longer ones that could not be communicated by fire, smoke or drum boats. Confidential messages were also safely derived by messengers.
- Suitable where there are no other means of communication.
- Messages were delivered instantly.
Disadvantages of messengers.
- It took a long time to reach the recipient since travel was by foot.
- The messenger could forget the message they were to deliver.
- The information could be distorted.
- The messenger could be attacked on the way and killed by wild animals.
- Distance covered by the messenger was limited.
- Horn blowing
A variety of messages could be sent by means of long and short blast of a horn, such as public announcements. Such sound could also be relayed.
- A wide range of message could be conveyed through tones.
- Could be used at any time of the day or night under any weather conditions.
- The horn could be blown when no one was listening.
- The messages were restricted to those who knew the tones.
- Messages could not travel beyond hills and mountains.
- The privacy of the message was not assured.
- Screams and cries
This was done from hills or mountain tops for maximum effects due to echoing.
Different ways of screaming conveyed different message, wailing signified bad news e.g. death or attack by raiders.
Ululations signified good news e.g. birth of a new child or feasting.
- A wide range of message was conveyed.
- The message reached the recipient fast.
- Messages were sent at no cost.
- The distance covered by the message was limited
- It had no secrecy in the message delivered.
- Scrolls. It’s a roll of paper used for writing, it was 1st used in ancient Egypt by splitting, soaking in water and drying papyrus roads- pens were also made from the reeds, while ink was derived from glue, gums, charcoal and other substances.
- Parchments. It was made from dried skins of goats and other animals. It proved better than papyrus because it could be folded and cut easily into pages.
- Stone tables. In Mesopotamia, a system of writing called cuneiform was developed from about 3500 years ago. Writing was done on a clay tablet using a wedge-shaped niber stylus; this had to be done while clay was wet.
Advantages of written
- The message was reliable as it could not be easily forgotten.
- In most instances the message was accurate.
- The message could be stored for future reference.
- The change in language used could affect the message as the meaning of words would also change.
- It is also effective in communication among the literate people.
- There are many forms of writing which create a problem of interpretation.
Development in modern means of communication.
It’s sending and receiving of message quickly over very long distance.
- The telephone and cell phone
The telephone is technological systems that send and receives voice message over a long distance by means of wires connecting to a local exchange.
The cell phone is also known as a cellular or mobile phone. a cell phone is a two-way radio system which connects the caller to the telephone network using radio waves instead of wires.
It sends picture and sound messages by radio from a transmitting station to a distant television set. The station changes light and sound waves from a scene into electronic signal and sends them. These are received in a television set which changes them back into pictures and sounds.
A radio set is a device which receives electro- magnetic radio waves and them into sound waves.
- The telegraph
The telegraph sends coded electronic messages by wire over long distances, for example, from one continent to another. The message is called a telegram if it travels over land; or a cable if it is sent or received from overseas.
- Electronic mail.
Is the exchanged computer stored messages by telecommunication between connected computers. The computers are linked by telephone. Local and international computer networks enable e-mail to be sent. E-mail was among the 1st and is still the most widely used application on the internet.
This refers to an electronic device that works under a command or programme to reach a conclusion based on data supplied. A computer works in seconds, it is made up of two basic parts, the body work (handwork) and the programme of instructions (software)
- Fax simile trans-receiver (fax)
The fax machine is also connected to a telephone line. It resembles a photo-copier; it transmits exact copies of pictures, letters, drawing or any other documents to another fax machine anywhere in the world.
It’s a modification of the telegraph. It sends and receives messages electronically which are printed in ordinary language. Neither does it need the presence of an operator to physically receive the message.
Is a small receiver that delivers short radio messages, the message is read on the pagers screen? It’s a portable communication message service.
A computer may be linked with other computers within an organization in order to easily exchange information. This linkage forms one network. The internet is a huge, worldwide system of millions of inter-connected networks.
Advantages of telecommunication.
- They are fast and efficient means of communication.
- They store information for future reference.
- They enable instant transmission of information.
- Information can be transmitted all over the world.
- They enable transmission of message to more than one recipient at the same time.
- They can only be used where there is electricity.
- They rely on experts to operate and be maintained.
- They are expensive to buy and maintain, hence not accessible to all people.
- Their use is limited to place where there is network and reception.
- They have increased interactions between people in many parts of the world.
- They have enabled people to manage information efficiently.
- The disposal of telecommunication gadgets may result in environmental pollution.
- Some means of telecommunication erode moral values e.g. pornography
- Use of some means of telecommunication may become addictive.
- Continues use of some means of telecommunication may be a health hazard.
- Provided government revenue through paying taxes and revenue.
- Provided employment to many people all over the world.
- They have promoted security by using radio and telephone to fight crime.
- They have promoted entertainment through music, films and sports.
- They have promoted trade as business people are able to communicate information about their products and services.
It’s refers to written and published document which provide information e.g. news letters, newspaper, magazines, journals and books.
Is a document produced daily to disseminate information about significant local and international news.
Is a regular publication providing specialised information on a particular issue? It is usually bound within covers and published weekly, fortnightly or monthly.
- Periodical (journals)
It’s a regular publication issued at weekly, monthly or quarterly intervals. They range from technical and scholarly journals to magazines for mass circulation.
Advantages of print media.
- They provide a permanent record of information for future reference.
- Provide material for reading and reference.
- They can be distributed in many parts of the world.
- They can be translated into many languages.
- They provide detailed information.
- They can only be used by the literate people.
- They are expensive to obtain, making it difficult for many people to access them.
- They can be used to spread malicious propaganda.
Impact of print media.
- They have enabled transmission of information all over the world.
- They have promoted literacy and education through provision of reading and defence material.
- They have created employment for many people.
- They are a source of government revenue.
- They have promoted moral decadence through publishing of obscene information.
Impact of modern means of communication.
- It has enhanced educational and research.
- It has created entertainment.
- It has led to space exploration.
- It has lead to improvement in air and water transportation.
- It has led to improvement in trade.
- Creation of employment to people.
- It’s also a source of revenue.
- It has opened up remote areas.
- It has lead to weather forecasting.
- It has led to rise in global crime.
- It has led to erosion of moral values.
- It has promoted addictive tendencies like , t.v programmes.
- There is also exposure to radioactive rays.
- It has lead to noise pollution.
- Telecommunication services have been used greatly to improve weaponry and conduct war.
- There has been the issue of cultural imperialism.