Explain five social effects of urbanization in Europe during the 19th century. (10mks)
- Migration of people to urban centres / led to overcrowding.
- Inadequate housing due to high concentration of people in urban centres.
- Poor sewerage and sanitation facilities exposed people to diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
- Concentration of industries led to environmental pollution which resulted to respiratory ailment / diseases.
- Concentration of people led to shortage of food which resulted in malnutrition.
- Frustration and suffering in urban area led to anti-social behaviour such as drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution.
- Increase in crime rate and violence created fear and insecurity.
- Poor working conditions e.g. child labour, long working hours and lack of workman’s compensation dehumanized
- urban dwellers.
- High concentration of people in urban centres strained the social amenities.
- Excessive rural immigration led to unemployment.
- Led to social interaction between different classes of people.
- Shortage of housing led to development of slums.